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Table 1 Sample description stratified by language and ethnicity

From: Cross-cultural validation of the German and Turkish versions of the PHQ-9: an IRT approach

  G-G (n = 1670) T-G (n = 191) T-T (n = 116) Total (n = 1977) Test statistic
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age in years, mean (SD) 43.7 (12.7) 32.6 (9.9) 43.7 (11.1) 42.6 (12.8) F(2) = 70.2***
 Female sex, n (%) 930 (55.7) 109 (57.4) 71 (61.2) 1110 (56.2) X2(2) = 1.5*
 Education ≥9 years, n (%)a 1638 (98.2) 181 (96.3) 94 (82.4) 1913 (97.1) X2(2) = 157.8***
 Being employed, n (%)b 1037 (62.1) 118 (62.4) 54 (46.6) 1209 (61.2) X2(2) = 11.1**
Clinical characteristics
 Being in inpatient treatment, n (%) 49 (2.9) 9 (4.7) 66 (56.9) 124 (6.3) X2(2) = 538.1***
 PHQ-9 total score, mean (SD) 2.6 (3.9) 7.2 (6.3) 13.6 (7.3) 3.7 (5.3) F(2) = 397.5***
Depression severity as defined by the PHQ-9
 None (0–4), n (%) 1360 (81.4) 73 (38.2) 12 (10.3) 1530 (77.4) X2(2) = 409.4***
 Mild (5–9), n (%) 210 (12.6) 64 (33.5) 33 (28.4) 222 (11.2) X2(2) = 72.9***
 Moderate (10–14), n (%) 62 (3.7) 31 (16.2) 17 (14.7) 162 (8.2) X2(2) = 168.4***
 Severe (≥15), n (%) 38 (2.3) 23 (12.0) 54 (46.6) 63 (3.2) X2(2) = 256.0***
Migration-related characteristics
 Years since immigration, mean (SD)c 28.0 (11.1) 26.1 (10.9) 26.9 (11.0) F(1) = 1.7*
 Second generation, n (%)d 117 (61.6) 12 (10.3) 129 (42.2) X2(1) = 76.8***
 Mother tongue = German, n (%) 32 (16.8) 7 (6.0) 39 (12.7) X2(1) = 7.5**
 German language proficiency, mean (SD)e 1.4 (0.7) 2.8 (1.0) 2.0 (1.1) F(1) = 165.8***
  1. G-G Germans with no migration background completing the German version of the PHQ-9, T-G  Turkish immigrants completing the German version of the PHQ-9, T-T Turkish immigrants completing the Turkish version of the PHQ-9
  2. aIncludes all school graduation certificates normally received after 9 or more years of school, i.e. the German “Hauptschulabschluss”, “Realschulabschluss” or “Abitur”, and the Turkish “Ortaokul diploması” or “Lise bitirme sınavı”. bWorking part-time or full-time. cApplies only for participants who were born in Turkey. dParticipants born in Germany, both parents born in Turkey. eSelf-reported German language proficiency, if mother tongue is Turkish (1 = very good,4 = poor/bad)
  3. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001