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Table 3 Associations of health behaviours in childhood with number of health care provider contacts with a primary diagnosis of an internalizing disorder in adolescence among participants of the Children’s Lifestyle and School Performance Study, Nova Scotia, Canada

From: The importance of health behaviours in childhood for the development of internalizing disorders during adolescence

Variable Univariable Model Multivariable Model 1 Multivariable Model 2
IRR (95% CI) IRR (95% CI) IRR (95% CI)
DQI-I variety
 Lowest tertile 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Middle tertile 0.81 (0.66, 1.01) 0.75 (0.58, 0.98) 0.77 (0.60, 0.99)
 Highest tertile 0.93 (0.72, 1.20) 0.84 (0.60, 1.19) 0.84 (0.59, 1.18)
DQI-I moderation
 Lowest tertile 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Middle tertile 1.02 (0.82, 1.28) 0.98 (0.72, 1.32) 0.97 (0.71, 1.34)
 Highest tertile 1.15 (0.89, 1.48) 1.10 (0.77, 1.57) 1.10 (0.76, 1.58)
DQI-I adequacy
 Lowest tertile 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Middle tertile 1.04 (0.82, 1.31) 1.22 (0.90, 1.65) 1.31 (0.95, 1.80)
 Highest tertile 1.04 (0.81, 1.33) 1.19 (0.79, 1.78) 1.26 (0.83, 1.91)
DQI-I balance    
 Poor balance (score < 1) 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Good balance (score ≥ 1) 1.04 (0.86, 1.27) 0.94 (0.76, 1.17) 0.91 (0.73, 1.13)
DQI-I overall    
 Lowest tertile 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Middle tertile 0.89 (0.70, 1.14) 0.92 (0.73, 1.17) 0.97 (0.77, 1.23)
 Highest tertile 1.02 (0.81, 1.29) 1.17 (0.79, 1.73) 1.21 (0.83, 1.76)
Physical activity without coach    
 Never 1.0 1.0 1.0
 1 to 3 times/week 0.71 (0.51, 1.00) 0.69 (0.51, 0.93) 0.70 (0.51, 0.96)
  ≥ 4 times/week 0.78 (0.56, 1.07) 0.81 (0.60, 1.09) 0.83 (0.61, 1.13)
Physical activity with coach    
 Never 1.0 1.0 1.0
 1 to 3 times/week 0.79 (0.64, 0.98) 0.87 (0.71, 1.07) 0.87 (0.71, 1.07)
  ≥ 4 times /week 0.62 (0.46, 0.85) 0.76 (0.57, 1.02) 0.79 (0.58, 1.07)
Use of computers or playing video games    
 Less than 1 h/day 1.0 1.0 1.0
 1–2 h/day 1.40 (1.12, 1.74) 1.57 (1.27, 1.93) 1.56 (1.26, 1.93)
 3–4 h/day 1.15 (0.87, 1.52) 1.49 (1.12, 1.98) 1.42 (1.06, 1.91)
  ≥ 5 h/day 1.18 (0.83, 1.68) 1.78 (1.19, 2.67) 1.67 (1.10, 2.54)
Watching TV    
 Less than 1 h/day 1.0 1.0 1.0
 1–2 h/day 0.97 (0.74, 1.27) 0.97 (0.74, 1.27) 0.98 (0.74, 1.29)
 3–4 h/day 1.04 (0.79, 1.36) 0.93 (0.71, 1.22) 0.93 (0.71, 1.23)
  ≥ 5 h/day 0.85 (0.65, 1.12) 0.79 (0.58, 1.07) 0.77 (0.56, 1.06)
Body weight status    
 Normal weight 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Overweight 1.08 (0.81, 1.44) 1.07 (0.84, 1.36) 1.05 (0.83, 1.32)
 Obese 1.13 (0.73, 1.75) 0.93 (0.68, 1.28) 0.85 (0.62, 1.18)
Gender    
 Boys 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Girls 1.62 (1.32, 1.98) 1.64 (1.36, 1.98) 1.61 (1.33, 1.96)
Household income    
  < $20,000 1.0 1.0 1.0
 $20,001–$40,000 0.74 (0.54, 1.01) 0.76 (0.57, 1.02) 0.82 (0.61, 1.11)
 $40,001–$60,000 0.81 (0.57, 1.15) 0.81 (0.60, 1.09) 0.84 (0.62, 1.14)
  > $60,000 0.57 (0.41, 0.78) 0.54 (0.40, 0.73) 0.59 (0.43, 0.79)
Parental education    
 Secondary school or less 1.0 1.0 1.0
 College 0.80 (0.63, 1.02) 0.87 (0.70, 1.08) 0.84 (0.68, 1.05)
 University or above 0.81 (0.63, 1.05) 0.94 (0.73, 1.20) 0.98 (0.76, 1.27)
Residence    
 Rural 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Urban 1.44 (1.17, 1.76) 1.65 (1.37, 1.99) 1.73 (1.43, 2.1)
Self-esteem (Low vs. high self-esteem)    
 Self-perception 1.24 (1.01, 1.52)   1.19 (0.98, 1.43)
 Externalizing problems 0.95 (0.76, 1.19)   1.02 (0.81, 1.27)
 Internalizing problems 1.29 (1.05, 1.59)   1.26 (1.05, 1.51)
 Social-perception 1.35 (1.10, 1.67)   1.39 (1.15, 1.69)
  1. IRR Incidence rate ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval; Model 1: IRR’s are mutually adjusted for all variables in the table and for energy intake but not for the self-esteem variables; Model 2: IRR’s are mutually adjusted for all variables in the table, including the self-esteem variables, and for energy intake. Estimates are weighted to represent grade five students in Nova Scotia. Bold values for IRRs and 95% CIs indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05)