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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of the study sample as well as means and standard deviations for the RFQ subscales, presented as M(SD)

From: Gain +1 or Avoid −1: Validation of the German Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ)

  N Percent RFQ Promotion RFQ Prevention
Gender
 Female 821 80.2 3.68 (0.58) 3.47 (0.79)
 Male 196 19.1 3.67 (0.63) 3.24 (0.78)
 Other 7 0.7 3.21 (0.50) 3.51 (0.74)
Age (years)
  ≤ 20 160 15.6 3.62 (0.61) 3.49 (0.78)
 21–30 543 53.0 3.67 (0.59) 3.46 (0.81)
 31–40 163 15.9 3.69 (0.58) 3.34 (0.72)
  > 40 158 15.4 3.73 (0.56) 3.29 (0.80)
Family status
 Single 572 55.9 3.63 (0.62) 3.44 (0.81)
 Committed Relationship 236 23.0 3.72 (0.54) 3.47 (0.77)
 Married 156 15.2 3.75 (0.55) 3.33 (0.73)
 Separated 12 1.2 3.75 (0.42) 2.85 (0.71)
 Divorced 40 3.9 3.75 (0.63) 3.26 (0.87)
 Widowed 8 0.8 3.73 (0.55) 4.03 (0.47)
Education
 Pupil 32 3.1 3.52 (0.67) 3.59 (0.70)
  ≤ 8 years 28 2.7 3.33 (0.51) 3.14 (0.82)
 9–11 years 130 12.7 3.47 (0.58) 3.21 (0.81)
  ≥ 12 years 834 81.4 3.73 (0.58) 3.46 (0.79)
Employment status
 Working full time 308 30.1 3.71 (0.58) 3.29 (0.77)
 Working part time 141 13.8 3.62 (0.56) 3.42 (0.82)
 Student/Apprentice 491 47.9 3.72 (0.59) 3.54 (0.79)
 Unemployed 42 4.1 3.26 (0.60) 3.33 (0.86)
 Homemaker 22 2.1 3.62 (0.58) 3.10 (0.59)
 Retired 20 2.0 3.49 (0.63) 3.13 (0.69)
Monthly household net income
  < 1000 € 365 35.6 3.69 (0.60) 3.59 (0.77)
 1000–1999 € 256 25.0 3.61 (0.58) 3.38 (0.82)
  ≥ 2000 € 325 31.7 3.71 (0.59) 3.29 (0.77)
 No answer 78 7.7 3.68 (0.59) 3.43 (0.79)