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Table 3 Incremental validity of the RSA: hierarchical multiple regression models for variables predicting affective symptoms (N = 762)

From: Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA) and the Herth hope scale (HHS) in the prediction of anxiety and depression

  HSCL Total HSCL Anxiety HSCL Depression
Predictors β R 2 Adj. ΔR 2 ΔF β R 2 Adj. ΔR 2 ΔF β R 2 Adj. ΔR 2 ΔF
Step 1: Demographics   .02   9.32   .04   17.65   .01   4.20*
Sex .11     .11**     .09**    
Age .04     −.04     .09**    
Step 2: SL- SLE   .04 .02 13.71   .06 .01 9.34**   .03 .02 13.47
Stressful life-events .12     .10**     .11    
Step 3: HHS Hope   .26 .23 74.40   .19 .14 42.05   .26 .24 78.17
Optimism/Spiritual Support −.04     .01     −.06    
Soc. Support/Belonging −.19     −.19     −.18    
Agency .07     .10     .05    
Step 4: RSA   .37 .11 127.40   .27 .08 79.25   .37 .11 119.79
Total Score −.46     −.40     −.45    
Step 4: RSA scales compared   .42 .16 34.45   .32 .13 23.02   .41 .15 31.17
Perception of Self −.40     −.41     −.35    
Planned Future −.14     −.07     −.17    
Social Competence −.06     −.06     −.06    
Family Cohesion −.03     .01     −.04    
Social Resources −.01     .00     −.01    
Structured Style −.03     −.04     −.03    
  1. Spanish-Language Stressful life events (SL-SLE), Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-25), Herth Hope Scale (HHS). Sex: 0 = male; 1 = female, age is mean centred. Bonferroni adjusted alpha level for the models compared (2 × 3 independent variables) is .0083. Variance inflation factor (VIF) and Tolerance were in accepted levels. Significant estimates at p < .001and are bold
  2. **p < .01; *p < .05