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Table 3 Sources focusing on childhood exposure to emotional neglect

From: Consequences of child emotional abuse, emotional neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence for eating disorders: a systematic critical review

Author, Country Design (cross-sectional, longitudinal) Sample Type (college, community, primary care, tertiary psychiatric care) Sample Size (n) Sample Characteristics
• % Women
• % Ethnic-minority
• % Immigrant
Age Range (years) Strength of Correlation for EN
Eating Disorders
 Utzinger et al. [33], USA* cross-sectional tertiary psychiatric care, college, community n = 133 • 100%
• 3%
• Unclear
18 to 55 0.76–0.85a**
 Bardone-Cone et al. [49], USA* cross-sectional Community, tertiary psychiatric care n = 138 • 100%
• 13%
• Unclear
18 to 55 0.11–0.25a**
 Grilo and Masheb [37], USA* cross-sectional primary care, tertiary psychiatric care n = 1, 241 • 97.9%
• 19.8%
• Unclear
18 to 65 0.26–0.50c**
 Schoemaker et al. [34], Netherlands cross-sectional community n = 1926 • 100%
• Unclear
• Unclear
18 to 45 0.26–0.50a**
Eating-Disordered Behavior
 Michopoulos et al. [17], USA cross-sectional primary care n = 1, 110 • 80.4%
• 97.4%
• Unclear
18 to 65 0.11–0.25c**
 Moulton et al. [14] Scotland cross-sectional college n = 142 • 100%
• Unclear
• Unclear
18 to 46 0.26–0.50a**
 Brooke and Mussap [41], cross-sectional college n = 299 • 52%
• Unclear
• Unclear
18 to 40 0.01–0.10b**
0.11–0.25c**
0.26–0.50a**
 Becker and Grilo [36], USA* cross-sectional tertiary psychiatric care n = 137 • 100%
• 15%
• Unclear
20 to 59 0.01–0.10ad
 Fosse and Holen [45], Norway cross-sectional tertiary psychiatric care n = 107 • 100%
• Unclear
• Unclear
18 to 55 0.11–0.25ad
Eating Disorders and Eating-Disordered Behavior
Grilo and Masheb [38], USA* cross-sectional primary care, tertiary psychiatric care n = 1, 270 • 97.3%
• 19.8%
• Unclear
18 to 65 0.01–0.10cd
0.11–0.25cd
  1. * Country of data collection not articulated. Assumption of country location was made given language used to describe participants (e.g. African American) or based upon identification of the location of the study’s Institutional Review Board
  2. ** Authors reported at least one bivariate correlation estimate to be significant at p < .05
  3. a Estimate falls within this range among women
  4. b Estimate falls within this range among men
  5. c Estimate falls within this range among men and women
  6. d Estimate reported was non-significant