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Table 1 Characteristics of the 38 included meta-analysis papers

From: An umbrella review of the literature on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for pain reduction

Author, Year List of Interventions evaluated List of Comparison groups Type of pain Number of included meta-analyses in this umbrella reviewa Primary studies per included meta-analysisb Sample size per included meta-analysisb
Adachi T, 2013 • Hypnosis • Standard care
• Other psychological treatments
• Chronic 3 4 to 12 163 to 505
Aqqarwal VR, 2011 • Any psychosocial intervention
• Cognitive behavioural therapy only
• Biofeedback only
• Cognitive behavioural therapy + Biofeedback
• Hypnotherapy
• Usual treatment
• Relaxation
• Muscle palpation
• Orofacial
7 2 to 4 45 to 411
Bawa F, 2015 • Mindfulness • Active control
• Inactive Control
• Chronic pain intensity 2 4 to 5 104 to 349
Bernardy K, 2011 • Hypnotherapy • Cognitive behavioural therapy/Treated as usual/Waiting list/Attention placebo • Fibromyalgia 1 6 178
Bernardy K, 2013 • Cognitive behavioural therapy
• Operant therapy
• Self-management
• Active control/Attention control/Education/Treated as usual/Support • Fibromyalgia 9 2 to 18 123 to 1150
Birnie K, 2014 • Distraction • Not Reported • Needle-related (children, adolescents) 1 24 2472
Champaneria, 2012 • Psychological intervention • No psychological intervention • Chronic pelvic 2 2 to 2 139 to 156
Damen L, 2006 • Relaxation + Biofeedback + Cognitive behavioural therapy
• Relaxation + Biofeedback
• Relaxation + Cognitive behavioural therapy
• Biofeedback
• Control
• Attention placebo
• Waiting list
• Headache 4 2 to 3 44 to 71
Dixon K, 2007 • Cognitive behavioural therapy/Stress management/Hypnotherapy • Not Reported • Arthritis 1 20 2303
Du S, 2011 • Arthritis Self-Management Program/Self-management • Waiting list/Usual care/Conventional/No treatment • Chronic musculoskeletal 3 3 to 8 1018 to 2968
Eccleston C, 2014a • Psychological therapies (Internet-delivered) • Active control/Treated as usual/Waiting list • Chronic Non- headache
• Chronic headache
3 2 to 11 131 to 1785
Eccleston C, 2014b • Psychological therapies • Control • Chronic and recurrent non-headache (children, adolescents)
• Chronic and recurrent headache (children, adolescents)
4 5 to 15 251 to 852
Fisher E, 2014 • Cognitive behavioural therapy/Biofeedback/ Relaxation/ Hypnotherapy • Waiting list/Education/Standard care/ Self-monitoring • Chronic Non- headache
• Chronic headache
2 11 to 18 672 to 748
Flanagan E, 2015 • Cognitive behavioural therapy only
• Cognitive behavioural therapy + behavioural
• Other psychological treatment
• Waiting list
• Medical treatment
• General vaginal pain
• Pain on intercourse
6 2 to 3 83 to 148
Glombiewski JA, 2010 • Education/ Cognitive behavioural therapy/ Relaxation • Cognitive behavioural therapy/Treated as usual/Waiting list/Attention placebo • Fibromyalgia 1 21 1017
Guzman J, 2002 • Multidisciplinary bio-psychosocial rehabilitation program • Not Reported • Low back 8 2 to 4 142 to 442
Henrich J, 2015 • Psychological therapies • Control • Irritable bowel syndrome 1 32 2245
Henschke N, 2011 • Behavioural treatment
• Behavioural treatment + physiotherapy
• Cognitive behavioural therapy
• Cognitive therapy
• Operant therapy
• Respondent therapy
• Usual care
• Group exercise
• Physiotherapy
• Cognitive therapy
• Operant therapy
• Respondent therapy
• Waiting list
• Chronic low back, IT 23 2 to 5 44 to 405
Johannsen M, 2013 • Education/ Relaxation, guided imagery, meditation or hypnosis / Supportive group therapy • Waiting list/Standard care/Not Reported • Breast cancer (patients/survivors) 1 21 1770
Kamper SJ, 2014 • Multidisciplinary biopsychological rehabilitation • Usual care
• Physical treatment
• Surgery
• Waiting list
• Chronic low back 8 2 to 12 213 to 1661
Kisely SR, 2015 • Psychological intervention • No psychological intervention • Chest 5 2 to 7 111 to 294
Knittle K, 2010 • Self-regulation • Waiting list/Standard care/No Intervention • Rheumatoid Arthritis 1 22 1316
Koranyi S, 2014 • Psychological intervention • Control
• Treated as usual
• Acute pain after open heart surgery 3 3 to 4 280 to 413
Kroon FP, 2014 • Self-management education programmes • No Self-management education programmes
• Information
• Usual care/Waiting list/No treatment
• Osteoarthritis 6 2 to 13 118 to 2271
Lakhan S, 2013 • Mindfulness-based therapy/ Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy • Education/Waiting list/Support • Fibromyalgia
• Irritable bowel syndrome
2 2 to 4 160 to 276
Lauche R, 2013 • Mindfulness-based stress reduction • Active control
• Usual care
• Fibromyalgia Syndrome 4 2 to 3 174 to 323
Macea DD, 2010 • Web-based Cognitive behavioural therapy interventions • Control • Chronic pain 1 11 2958
Mustafa M, 2013 • Supportive/expressive group therapy • Usual treatment • Metastatic breast cancer 1 3 279
Osborn RL, 2006 • Education • Control • Cancer survivors 1 3 250
Peerdeman K, 2016 • Verbal suggestion/ Imagery
• Verbal suggestion only
• Conditioning only
• Imagery only
• Control/No treatment • Affective pain
• Expected pain
• Pain relief
5 3 to 18 142 to 1061
Roldan-Barraza C, 2014 • Psychosocial Intervention/ Psychosocial Intervention + Usual Treatment • Usual Treatment
• Tailored Usual Treatment
• Myofascial Temporomandibular Disorder 5 3 to 7 238 to 470
Sheinfeld Gorin S, 2012 • Psychological intervention • Control • Cancer pain severity 1 38 4270
Sielski R, 2016 • Biofeedback/ Electromyographic Biofeedback • Control • Chronic back 2 11 to 22 471 to 1059
Sprenger L, 2011 • Psychoeducation/Imagination/Relaxation/Biofeedback/Cognitive behavioural therapy • No treatment/Paediatric standard care • Recurrent abdominal in children 1 9 449
Theadom A, 2015 • Psychological therapies
• Mindfulness
• Relaxation
• Usual care
• Attention control
• Fibromyalgia 7 2 to 9 67 to 453
Uman LS, 2013 • Child distraction
• Cognitive behavioural therapy-combined
• Hypnosis
• Parent coaching + child distraction
• Preparation and information
• Suggestion
• Virtual reality
• Control
• Standard care
• Needle-related (children, adolescents) 8 2 to 5 50 to 612
Vellemain S, 2010 • Computerized Cognitive behavioural therapy • Waiting list/ Education • Pain in children and adolescents 1 4 150
Williams AC, 2012 • Behavioural
• Cognitive behavioural
• Treated as usual
• Active control
• Chronic non- headache 6 2 to 16 182 to 1335
  1. aNumber of included meta-analyses may differ from the number of combinations of intervention group, control group and outcome because I) some possible combinations were not assessed in original studies, and II) there are instances where the outcome was evaluated in different time points. For a complete list of the combinations included in this umbrella review please refer to Additional file 1: Table S1
  2. bWhen more than one meta-analysis is included per study, numbers represent minimum-maximum