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Table 2 Classification accuracy of the Neurobehavioral Screening Tool reported in the individual studies

From: Neurodevelopmental profile of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review

Reference Age range (years) Comparison Items endorsed Sensitivity 95% CIa Specificity 95% CIa
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Breiner et al. [23] 4 to 6 FASD (n = 17) vs. Deferred/Controls (n = 43)b ≥5 items (items 1, 2, 4–8; acts young, disobedient, lacks guilt, difficulty concentrating, impulsivity, hyperactive, cruelty)c 94% 88% 100% 96% 91% 100%
Haynes et al. [26] 6 to 12 Children born to and reared by mothers with depression (n = 49) vs. Controls (n = 22) ≥6 items (out of items 1–7; acts young, disobedient, lie/cheat, lacks guilt, difficulty concentrating, impulsivity, hyperactive) OR ≥3 items (out of items 1, 2, 3, and 4; acts young, disobedient, lie/cheat, lacks guilt) - - - 100% - -
LaFrance et al. [24] 6 to 17 FASD (n = 48) vs. Controls (n = 32) ≥6 items (out of items 1–7; acts young, disobedient, lie/cheat, lacks guilt, difficulty concentrating, impulsivity, hyperactive) OR ≥3 items (out of items 1, 2, 3, and 4; acts young, disobedient, lie/cheat, lacks guilt) 63% 53% 74% 100% - -
Children prenatally exposed to alcohol who did not meet the criteria for an FASD diagnosis (n = 22) vs. Controls (n = 32) ≥6 items (out of items 1–7; acts young, disobedient, lie/cheat, lacks guilt, difficulty concentrating, impulsivity, hyperactive) OR ≥3 items (out of items 1, 2, 3, and 4; acts young, disobedient, lie/cheat, lacks guilt) 50% 37% 63% 100% - -
Nash et al. [21] 6 to 18 FASD (n = 30) vs. Controls (n = 30) ≥6 items (out of items 1–7; acts young, disobedient, lie/cheat, lacks guilt, difficulty concentrating, impulsivity, hyperactive) 86% 77% 95% 82% 72% 92%
FASD (n = 30) vs. ADHD (n = 30) ≥2 items (out of items 1, 4, and 8; acts young, lacks guilt, cruelty) 70% 58% 82% 80% 70% 90%
≥3 items (out of items 1, 4, 8, 9, and 10; acts young, lacks guilt, cruelty, steals from home, steals from outside home) 81% 71% 91% 72% 61% 83%
Nash et al. [22] 6 to 18 FASD (n = 56) vs. Controls (n = 53) ≥3 items (out of all 10 items; acts young, disobedient, lie/cheat, lacks guilt, difficulty concentrating, impulsivity, hyperactive, cruelty, steals from home, steals from outside home) 98% 95% 100% 42% 33% 51%
FASD (n = 56) vs. ADHD (n = 50) ≥2 items (out of items 1, 4, 8, 9, and 10; acts young, lacks guilt, cruelty, steals from home, steals from outside home) 89% 83% 95% 42% 33% 51%
FASD (n = 56) vs. ODD/CD (n = 61) 1 item (item 1; acts young) - - - - - -
  1. ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, CD Conduct Disorder, CI Confidence Interval, FASD Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, ODD Oppositional Defiant Disorder
  2. aEstimated by the current author, using a binomial distribution
  3. bIt is assumed that children with FASD were compared to children for whom a diagnosis could not be confirmed or was deferred in combination with control children (methods and results sections were inadequate to determine if this assumption is correct)
  4. cItems 3, 9, and 10 (lie/cheat, steal at home, and steal outside the home) were excluded from the analysis due to the inability to verify these items in most young children