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Table 1 Sample Characteristics and Central Constructs for CFS, ISF, and Well Group

From: Patterns of control beliefs in chronic fatigue syndrome: results of a population-based survey

  Groups
Variable CFS (n = 113)   ISF (n = 264)   Well (n = 124)    p   
  n (%) n (%) n (%)     
Sex
 Female 92 (81.4) 201 (76.1)   93 (75)    .44   
 Male 21 (18.6) 63 (23.9)   31 (25)      
Race
 White 84 (74.3) 196 (74.2)   95 (76.6)    .87   
 Non White 29 (25.7) 68 (25.8)   29 (23.4)      
  M (SD) 95% CI M (SD) 95% CI M (SD) 95% CI F p η 2 post-hoc comparison
Age (years)
 Mean (SE) 44.29 (.95) 42.41–46.17 43.11 (.95) 41.85–44.37 44.52 (.94) 42.66–46.39 1.01 .37 0.00  
 Range 18–59   18–59   19–59      
Control beliefs
 Internal control 7.19 (.56) 6.07–8.31 8.60 (.39) 7.85–9.36 10.17 (.54) 9.11–11.23 7.00 .004 0.03 C = I; C < W; I = W
 Competence 6.17 (.65) 4.88–7.47 7.35 (.44) 6.49–8.22 12.17 (.51) 11.16–13.18 28.56 <.001 0.10 C = I < W
 Powerful others −10.19 (.78) −11.74– − 8.64 −10.25 (.49) −11.21– − 9.29 −12.09 (.64) −13.36– − 10.82 2.63 .28 0.01  
 Chance −10.80 (.77) −12.33– − 9.27 −11.76 (.50) −12.75– − 10.77 −12.89 (.68) −14.23– − 11.55 2.01 .56 0.01  
Personality
 Neuroticism 1.98 (.07) 1.84–2.12 1.67 (.04) 1.58–1.75 .92 (.04) 0.83–1.01 84.01 <.001 0.25 C > I > W
 Extraversion 2.04 (.05) 1.93–2.15 2.24 (.03) 2.18–2.31 2.66 (.04) 2.57–2.75 41.34 <.001 0.14 C < I < W
 Openness 2.27 (.04) 2.19–2.35 2.19 (.03) 2.13–2.26 2.29 (.05) 2.20–2.38 1.87 .16 0.01  
 Agreeableness 2.79 (.04) 2.71–2.88 2.79 (.03) 2.74–2.84 3.06 (.03) 2.99–3.13 17.01 <.001 0.06 C = I < W
 Conscientiousness 2.71 (.05) 2.61–2.81 2.82 (.03) 2.76–2.88 3.07 (.04) 2.99–3.15 16.56 <.001 0.06 C = I < W
Coping
 Confrontive 12.27 (.35) 11.59–12.96 11.05 (.21) 10.63–11.47 9.80 (.26) 9.28–10.32 15.69 <.001 0.06 C = I > W
 Distancing 11.58 (.33) 10.92–12.24 11.45 (.21) 11.04–11.87 10.41 (.26) 9.90–10.93 5.00 .056 0.02  
 Self-Controlling 16.35 (.39) 15.57–17.12 15.72 (.27) 15.20–16.25 14.64 (.38) 13.89–15.39 4.96 .056 0.02  
 Seeking Support 12.81 (.36) 12.11–13.52 12.64 (.26) 12.12–13.16 12.28 (.35) 11.59–12.98 0.54 >1.00 0.00  
 Responsibility 7.98 (.30) 7.39–8.57 7.20 (.17) 6.86–7.54 6.23 (.22) 5.80–6.67 11.56 <.001 0.04 C = I; C > W; I = W
 Escape-Avoidance 14.25 (.45) 13.35–15.15 13.27 (.26) 12.76–13.77 10.91 (.26) 10.39–11.43 22.04 <.001 0.08 C = I > W
 Problem Solving 14.26 (.39) 13.48–15.03 14.18 (.25) 13.68–14.68 13.91 (.41) 13.11–14.71 0.24 >1.00 0.00  
 Reappraisal 15.16 (.47) 14.23–16.09 14.97 (.34) 14.30–15.65 14.47 (.46) 13.55–15.39 0.56 >1.00 0.00  
  1. Note. Higher scores indicate stronger beliefs, M mean, SD standard deviation, 95% CI 95% confidence intervals for the means, ONEWAY (Analysis of Variance), Kruskal-Wallis for sex and race with F and post-hoc comparison (Scheffé) for continuous outcomes (significance level Bonferroni adjusted); Bonferroni-adjusted p; effect size η 2= between-groups effect/total amount of variance