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Table 3 Multiple linear regression; association between predictors and cognitive status at age 50 (data imputed for missing cases; estimated model)

From: Is mid-life social participation associated with cognitive function at age 50? Results from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS)

  Stand-ard-ised β 95% CI (p-value) t-test
Cognition in childhood
 Standardized score at age 11 Per unit 0.19 0.17 to 0.21 (<0.0001) 18.73
Social network
Age 33
 Has > = 1 friend/neighbour/ colleague could turn to for advice (ref = 0 ‘No/No one mentioned) Yes 0.10 –0.04 to 0.17 (0.16) 1.42
 Has at least 1 member of family could turn to for advice (ref = 0 ‘No/No one mentioned) Yes –0.11 –0.18 to 0.08 (0.02) –2.32
 Number of civic group activities participated in Per 1 activity + 0.12 0.02 to 0.22 (0.03) 2.22
Age 42
 Has somebody could turn to for advice (ref = 0 ‘Nobody’) Family member –0.01 –0.30 to 0.27 (0.93) –0.09
Friend/colleague/neighbour 0.02 –0.27 to 0.32 (0.89) 0.15
Age 50
 Number of civic group activities participated in Per 1 activity more 0.13 0.07 to 0.20 (<0.0001) 4.34
 Health and Health behaviour
Age 33
 Self-rated health (ref = 0 ‘Poor’) Fair 0.01 –0.49 to 0.50 (0.99) 0.01
Good 0.14 –0.36 to 0.64 (0.58) 0.56
Excellent 0.16 –0.35 to 0.68 (0.52) 0.64
Age 42
 Mental well-being (Malaise score; 9-item version) ref = 0 ‘Better 0/3’ Worse (4+) –0.18 –0.33 to –0.02 (0.03) –2.23
 Frequency of drinking alcohol (ref = 0 ‘Never’) Not now/Special occasions 0.11 –0.39 to 0.60 (0.67) 0.42
Once a week 0.18 –0.32 to 0.67 (0.49) 0.71
More often 0.30 –0.21 to 0.81 (0.24) 1.18
 Frequency of smoking (ref = 0 ‘No) Used to/ occasionally 0.07 –0.04 to 0.19 (0.21) 1.22
Daily 0.03 –0.1 to 0.17 (0.61) 0.51
 Takes part in sporting activities and how frequently (ref = 0 ‘Not regularly’) 2–3 times a month 0.16 –0.05 to 0.38 (0.13) 1.50
Once a week 0.15 0.01 to 0.30 (0.03) 2.14
2–3 times a week 0.19 0.05 to 0.33 (0.01) 2.59
4 times week / everyday 0.18 0.05 to 0.31 (0.006) 2.73
 Socio-economic background
Age 11
 Father’s (male head) social class (ref = 0 ‘Professional’) Managerial-technical –0.17 –0.42 to 0.07 (0.16) –1.41
Skilled non-manual –0.24 –0.53 to 0.05 (0.09) –1.70
Skilled manual –0.22 –0.47 to 0.01 (0.05) –1.94
Partly skilled –0.27 –0.52 to –0.03 (0.03) –2.21
Unskilled –0.29 –0.58 to 0.02 (0.06) –1.90
No male head –0.10 –0.41 to 0.24 (0.57) –0.57
 \Housing tenure (ref = 0 ‘Owner occupied’) Council rented –0.03 –0.15 to 0.08 (0.51) –0.66
Private rented 0.02 –0.17 to 0.22 (0.82) 0.23
Rent free 0.06 –0.21 to 0.25 (0.63) 0.48
Age 42
 Own social class ((ref = 0 ‘Professional’) Managerial-technical –0.06 –0.28 to 0.16 (0.61) –0.50
Skilled non-manual –0.17 –0.43 to 0.09 (0.19) –1.27
Skilled manual –0.28 –0.54 to –0.03 (0.03) –2.17
Partly skilled –0.32 –0.60 to –0.04 (0.02) –2.22
Unskilled –0.38 –0.76 to –0.004 (0.05) –1.96
Age 50
 Highest achieved qualification (ref = 0 ‘None’) CSE or equivalent 0.23 0.003 to 0.41 (0.03) 2.16
GCSE or equivalent 0.33 0.15 to 0.51 (<0.0001) 3.61
AS/ A-level or equivalent 0.61 0.42 to 0.80 (<0.0001) 6.27
Degree/teaching diploma/vocational NVQ4 diploma 0.83 0.64 to 1.02 (<0.0001) 8.44
Higher degree/NVQ5 diploma 1.08 0.79 to 1.38 (<0.0001) 7.17
Gender (ref = 0 Male) Female 0.49 0.38 to 0.60 (<0.0001) 9.22
 Constant –0.90 –1.66 to –0.14 (0.02) –2.32
 R2 0.1767
 Adjusted R2 0.1730
 F statistic (40, 6463.0) 42.47
 P-value <0.0001