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Table 2 Bivariate associations between standardized cognitive score at age 50 and predictive variables over the life-course (linear regression)

From: Is mid-life social participation associated with cognitive function at age 50? Results from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS)

  Unstandardized B
Standardized β
95% CI (p-value) t-test
Cognition in childhood
 Standardized score at age 11 Per unit 0.29
0.36
0.27 to 0.30
(<0.0001)
35.0
Social network
Age 33    
 Has at least 1 friend/ neighbour/colleague could turn to for advice No / No one mentioned   0 (ref)  
Yes 0.41
0.08
0.30 to 0.51
(<0.0001)
7.70
 Has at least 1 member of family could turn to for advice No/ No one mentioned   0 (ref)  
Yes 0.46
0.08
0.34 to 0.58
(<0.0001)
7.50
 Number of civic group activities participated in Per 1 activity + 0.56
0.12
0.45 to 0.65
(<0.0001)
11.00
Age 42    
 Has somebody could turn to for advice No   0 (ref)  
Family member 0.60
0.11
0.31 to 0.90
(<0.0001)
4.01
Friend/colleague/neighbour 0.64
0.11
0.33 to 0.95
(<0.0001)
4.03
Age 50    
Number of civic group activities participated in Per 1 activity + 0.39
0.13
0.32 to 0.45
(<0.0001)
12.13
Health and Health behaviour
Age 33    
Self-rated health Poor   0 (ref)  
Fair 0.23
0.03
–0.28 to 0.75
(0.38)
0.88
Good 0.73
0.15
0.24 to 1.22
(0.004)
2.91
Excellent 0.98
0.20
0.41 to 1.48
(<0.0001)
3.87
Age 42    
 Mental well-being (Malaise score; 9-item version) Better (0–3)   0 (ref)  
Worse (4+) –0.45
–0.06
–0.61 to –0.29
(<0.0001)
–5.41
 Frequency of drinking alcohol Never   0 (ref)  
Not now/ special occasions –0.09
–0.1
–0.60 to 0.41
(0.72)
–0.35
Once in a week 0.11
0.02
–0.38 to 0.61
(0.66)
0.44
More often 0.56
0.11
0.07 to 1.06
(0.03)
2.23
 Frequency of smoking No   0 (ref)  
Used to / occasionally –0.08
–0.01
–0.20 to 0.04
(0.21)
–1.24
Daily –0.58
–0.10
–0.71 to –0.44
(<0.0001)
–8.63
 Takes part in sporting activities and how frequently Not regularly/ less often than once in month   0 (ref)  
2–3 times in month 0.51
0.05
0.28 to 0.74
(<0.0001)
4.46
Once in week 0.52
0.08
0.36 to 0.67
(<0.0001)
6.55
2–3 times in a week 0.58
0.10
0.43 to 0.73
(<0.0001)
7.61
4 times in week/every day 0.40
0.07
0.25 to 0.54
(<0.0001)
5.43
 Socio-economic background
Age 11    
 Father’s social class Professional   0 (ref)  
Managerial-technical –0.40
–0.07
–0.64 to –0.15
(0.002)
–3.17
Skilled non-man –0.65
–0.08
–0.93 to –0.38
(<0.0001)
–4.68
Skilled manual –1.15
–0.23
–1.38 to –0.92
(<0.0001)
–9.75
Partly skilled –1.35
–0.20
–1.60 to –1.09
(<0.0001)
–10.46
Unskilled –1.66
–0.15
–1.98 to –1.34
(<0.0001)
–10.25
No male head –1.04
–0.09
–1.37 to –0.71
(<0.0001)
–6.23
 Housing tenure Owner occupied   0 (ref)  
Council rented –0.75
–0.15
–0.86 to –0.64
(<0.0001)
–13.12
Private rented –0.48
–0.05
–0.69 to –0.28
(<0.0001)
–4.60
Rent free –0.31
–0.03
–0.56 to –0.06
(0.02)
–2.42
Age 42     
 Own social class Professional   0 (ref)  
Managerial-technical –0.51
–0.10
–0.75 to –0.26
(<0.0001)
–4.09
Skilled non-man –0.96
–0.17
–1.21 to –0.70
(<0.0001)
–7.34
Skilled manual –1.71
–0.28
–1.97 to –1.45
(<0.0001)
–12.97
Partly skilled –1.55
–0.21
–1.83 to –1.28
(<0.0001)
–11.04
Unskilled –2.11
–0.15
–2.50 to –1.71
(<0.0001)
–10.43
Age 50     
 Highest achieved qualification None   0 (ref)  
CSE or equivalent 0.41
0.05
0.20 to 0.62
(<0.0001)
3.89
GCSE or equivalent 0.96
0.17
0.78 to 1.14
(<0.0001)
10.56
AS/A level or equivalent 1.37
0.22
1.18 to 1.56
(<0.0001)
14.24
Degree/teaching diploma/vocational NVQ4 diploma 2.07
0.40
1.89 to 2.24
(<0.0001)
23.46
Higher Degree/vocational NVQ5 diploma 2.63
0.22
2.35 to 2.91
(<0.0001)
18.62
Gender Male   0 (ref)  
Female 0.47
0.10
0.37 to 0.57
(<0.0001)
9.08