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Table 3 Frequency and distribution of depressive symptoms by exposure status among men

From: Prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in relation to rural-to-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study

Variable Men
Total (N) Rural-urban migrants
(N,%)
Urban residents (N,%) Rural residents (N,%) P-value a
Presence Of Individual Symptoms: b
 Decreased Interest Or Pleasure 66 23 (9.5) 8 (10.5) 35 (23.3) 0.001
 Depressed Mood 35 14 (5.8) 6 (7.9) 15 (10.0) 0.41
 Insomnia Or Hypersomnia 44 18 (7.4) 8 (10.5) 18 (12.0) 0.22
 Fatigue Or Loss Of Energy 42 15 (6.2) 9 (11.8) 18 (12.0) 0.05
 Poor Appetite Or Overeating 37 11 (4.6) 4 (5.3) 22 (14.7) 0.004
 Feelings Of Worthlessness Or Inappropriate Guilt 15 4 (1.7) 3 (3.9) 8 (5.3) 0.46
 Diminished Ability To Think Or Concentrate 14 5 (2.1) 2 (2.6) 7 (4.7) 0.30
 Psychomotor Retardation Or Agitation 17 6 (2.5) 3 (4.0) 8 (5.3) 0.16
 Thoughts Of Death Or Suicide Or Self-Harm 10 2 (0.8) 2 (2.6) 6 (4.0) 0.06
Overall Severity Of Symptoms:
 None/Minimal Symptoms 441 230 (95.0) 73 (96.1) 138 (92.0) 0.24
 Mild To Severe Symptoms c 27 12 (5.0) 3 (3.9) 12 (8.0)
Presence Of Any Depressive Disorder d 15 6 (2.5) 1 (1.3) 8 (5.3) Na e
Total 468 242 76 150  
  1. a Evidence for a difference across exposure groups; P-values derived from likelihood ratio tests based on logistic regression with random effects to account for sib-pair correlations; age-adjusted
  2. b according to the patient health questionnaire
  3. c Including 3 men without current symptoms but on anti-depressant medication
  4. d Including major depression and other depressive disorders
  5. e Not applicable (scarcity of data)