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Table 2 Frequency and distribution of depressive symptoms by exposure status among women

From: Prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in relation to rural-to-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study

Variable Women
Total (N) Rural-urban migrants
(N,%)
Urban residents (N,%) Rural residents (N,%) P-value a
Presence Of Individual Symptoms: b
 Decreased Interest Or Pleasure 90 47 (21.5) 16 (19.3) 27 (23.7) 0.88
 Depressed Mood 68 29 (13.2) 15 (18.1) 24 (21.1) 0.06
 Insomnia Or Hypersomnia 94 46 (21.0) 21 (25.3) 27 (23.7) 0.82
 Fatigue Or Loss Of Energy 96 47 (21.5) 17 (20.5) 32 (28.1) 0.60
 Poor Appetite Or Overeating 43 17 (7.8) 11 (13.3) 15 (13.2) 0.30
 Feelings Of Worthlessness Or Inappropriate Guilt 20 7 (3.2) 7 (8.4) 6 (5.3) 0.18
 Diminished Ability To Think Or Concentrate 21 9 (4.1) 2 (2.4) 10 (8.8) 0.41
 Psychomotor Retardation Or Agitation 42 19 (8.7) 7 (8.4) 16 (14.0) 0.67
 Thoughts Of Death Or Suicide Or Self-Harm 20 6 (2.7) 4 (4.8) 10 (8.8) 0.07
Overall Severity Of Symptoms:
 None/Minimal Symptoms 369 201 (91.8) 73 (87.9) 95 (83.3) 0.14
 Mild To Severe Symptoms c 47 18 (8.2) 10 (12.1) 19 (16.7)
Presence Of Any Depressive Disorder d 13 3 (1.4) 7 (8.4) 3 (2.6) Na e
Total 416 219 83 114  
  1. a Evidence for a difference across exposure groups; P-values derived from likelihood ratio tests based on logistic regression with random effects to account for sib-pair correlations; age-adjusted
  2. b According to the patient health questionnaire
  3. c Including 2 women without current symptoms but on anti-depressant medication
  4. d Including major depression and other depressive disorders
  5. e Not applicable (scarcity of data)