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Table 1 Sociodemographic parameters by gender and exposure status (rural-Urban migrants, urban residents, rural residents)

From: Prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in relation to rural-to-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study

Variable Men (N = 468) Women (N = 416)
Rural-urban migrants Urban residents Rural residents Rural-urban migrants Urban residents Rural residents
Age (Years)
Mean (Sd)
52.7 (5.9) 48.6 (9.0) 48.1 (10.2) 46.9 (6.0) 45.6 (7.2) 48.7 (10.3)
Standard Of Living Index
Median (Iqr)
28 (26–30) 26 (22–29) 20 (15–23) 28 (26–30) 26 (24–30) 16 (13–20)
Education (N, %)
 No Formal Education 4 (1.7 %) 1 (1.3 %) 32 (21.3 %) 71 (32.4 %) 7 (8.4 %) 50 (43.9 %)
 Up To Primary School 21 (8.7 %) 10 (13.2 %) 39 (26.0 %) 73 (33.3 %) 18 (21.7 %) 44 (38.6 %)
 Secondary School 170 (70.3 %) 43 (56.6 %) 55 (36.7 %) 56 (25.6 %) 30 (36.1 %) 17 (14.9 %)
 Professional Degree/Graduate/Post-Grad. 47 (19.4 %) 22 (29.0 %) 24 (16.0 %) 19 (8.7 %) 28 (33.7 %) 3 (2.6 %)
Household Type (N,%)
 Single/Shared Household Or Nuclear Family 170 (70.2 %) 54 (71.1 %) 95 (63.3 %) 158 (72.2 %) 63 (75.9 %) 66 (57.9 %)
 Extended Family 72 (29.8 %) 22 (28.9 %) 55 (36.7 %) 61 (27.9 %) 20 (24.1 %) 48 (42.1 %)
Current Occupation (N, %)
 Not Employed 18 (7.4 %) 7 (9.2 %) 9 (6.0 %) 199 (90.9 %) 60 (72.3 %) 61 (53.5 %)
 Manual 125 (51.7 %) 36 (47.4 %) 92 (61.3 %) 8 (3.7 %) 8 (9.6 %) 46 (40.4 %)
 Non-Manual 99 (40.9 %) 33 (43.4 %) 49 (32.7 %) 12 (5.5 %) 15 (18.1 %) 7 (6.1 %)
Marital Status (N, %)
 Currently Married 238 (98.4 %) 70 (92.1 %) 148 (98.7 %) 209 (95.4 %) 78 (94.0 %) 80 (70.2 %)
 Not Married 4 (1.7 %) 6 (7.9 %) 2 (1.3 %) 10 (4.6 %) 5 (6.0 %) 34 (29.8 %)
No. Of Children (N, %)
 0–2 99 (42.9 %) 38 (55.9 %) 71 (52.2 %) 89 (43.2 %) 44 (56.4 %) 47 (44.3 %)
 3 84 (36.4 %) 19 (27.9 %) 33 (24.3 %) 77 (37.4 %) 24 (30.8 %) 34 (32.1 %)
  ≥ 4 48 (20.8 %) 11 (16.2 %) 32 (23.5 %) 40 (19.4 %) 10 (12.8 %) 25 (23.6 %)
  1. * Age adjusted P-value < 0.05 in comparison to rural-urban-migrants
  2. ** Age adjusted P-value < 0.01 In comparison to rural-urban-migrants