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Table 2 Means, standard deviations, and group differences from pre to post, pre to 1 year follow-up, and pre to 4 year follow-up

From: Improved parenting maintained four years following a brief parent training intervention in a non-clinical sample

  Incredible Years Control Group    
  Pre Post 1 year FU 4 year FU Pre Post 1 year FU 4 year FU Pre-post Pre-1 year Pre-4 year
  M M M M M M M M t(383) t(386) t(385)
  (SD) (SD) (SD) (SD) (SD) (SD) (SD) (SD) (g) (g) (g)
PPI Positive Parenting 4.56 5.20 5.06 4.93 4.50 4.52 4.69 4.50 7.04*** 3.72*** 3.80***
(0.49) (0.54) (0.47) (0.44) (0.56) (0.62) (0.63) (0.64) (1.13) (0.62) (0.63)
PPI Harsh Discipline 1.96 1.70 1.74 1.74 1.93 1.90 1.87 1.84 4.12*** −2.65** −2.63**
(0.48) (0.44) (0.43) (0.41) (0.38) (0.44) (0.43) (0.41) (0.57) (0.38) (0.37)
PSOC Efficacy 31.38 33.94 34.24 34.35 31.93 32.63 33.56 33.27 3.13** 1.90 2.67**
(3.64) (3.62) (3.56) (3.86) (3.69) (3.80) (3.93) (4.30) (0.28) (0.18) (0.25)
PSOC Satisfaction 39.43 42.73 43.42 43.92 40.24 41.30 42.00 42.76 2.66** 2.36* 1.54
(6.56) (6.44) (5.90) (5.44) (5.88) (5.77) (6.25) (5.86) (0.59) (0.54) (0.35)
ECBI Intensity 104.25 96.10 96.01 92.81 101.91 102.44 99.18 89.06 −2.75** −1.74 0.303
(18.59) (18.40) (21.59) (21.27) (14.50) (19.39) (18.53) (17.69) (0.48) (0.32) (−0.05)
  1. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001