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Table 2 Self-rated depression among respondents aged 18 and over in Moscow. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) estimated from binary logistic regression. Model 1: age adjusted; Model 2: mutually adjusted

From: Social capital – a mixed blessing for women? A cross-sectional study of different forms of social relations and self-rated depression in Moscow

Variables Men (n = 507) Women (n = 678)       
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2     
  OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Age 1.00 0.99–1.01 0.99 0.98–1.00 1.00 0.99–1.01 1.00 0.99–1.01
Educational level
 High 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Medium 0.89 0.58–1.36 0.78 0.49–1.22 0.91 0.64–1.29 0.85 0.59–1.22
 Low 1.04 0.66–1.65 1.02 0.63–1.65 0.75 0.50–1.12 0.74 0.49–1.12
Economic problems
 Few 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Many 2.34 1.57–3.51*** 2.49 1.65–3.78*** 1.48 1.09–2.01* 1.52 1.11–2.07**
Family relations
Marital status
 Married/cohabiting 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Divorced/widowed 1.20 0.70–2.07 1.13 0.64–1.98 1.48 1.02–2.14* 1.49 1.03–2.17*
 Never married 1.03 0.60–1.76 1.10 0.62–1.95 0.96 0.59–1.56 0.94 0.56–1.55
Contact with relatives
 Regular 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Little 1.62 1.10–2.39* 1.51 1.00–2.30 1.45 1.06–1.98* 1.57 1.10–2.24*
Extra-familial relations
Contact with friends/ acquaintances
 Regular 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Little 1.63 1.08–2.45* 1.44 0.93–2.25 1.12 0.81–1.55 0.97 0.67–1.40
Age-bridging contacts
 Regular 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Little 0.99 0.67–1.47 0.88 0.58–1.33 0.72 0.52–0.98* 0.72 0.51–1.00*
Voluntary associations
 Member 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Non-member 1.07 0.70–1.63 1.07 0.68–1.68 0.96 0.66–1.40 1.04 0.70–1.54
  1. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.005 ***p < 0.001
  2. NOTE: Standardised according to the educational-level proportions of the Moscow City population given in the 2002 census for the population over 18 years