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Table 4 Intervention effect on school children’s socio-emotional skills and psychological problems among boys. Regression estimates from multilevel models: intervention effect (Model A, term Intervention x T1) and intervention effect moderated by school grade (Model B, terms Intervention x 2nd/3rd grade x T1, 1st grade as the reference)

From: Short-term effects of the “Together at School” intervention program on children’s socio-emotional skills: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    MASCS SDQ
    Cooperation Empathy Prosocial Total/psychological problems
    Model A Model B Model A Model B Model A Model B Model A Model B
  Estimate Estimate Estimate Estimate Estimate Estimate Estimate Estimate
Baseline         
  Intercept 14.125**** 14.025**** 9.136**** 9.073**** 5.357**** 5.215**** 7.433**** 7.791****
  2nd grade 0.149 0.178 0.112 0.162 0.178 0.347 −0.668 −0.803
  3rd grade −0.032 0.284 −0.050 0.106 0.161 0.453 0.535 −0.528
  Intervention −0.193 −0.053 −0.221* −0.077 −0.160 −0.024 0.883** 0.155
  Intervention x 2nd grade   0.032   −0.143   −0.085   0.346
  Intervention x 3rd grade   −0.651   −0.368   −0.432   2.452**
Change by time         
  T1   0.261** 0.480** 0.084 0.142 0.139 0.335* −0.275 −0.360
  Intervention x T1 0.032 −0.284 0.042 −0.129 0.029 −0.059 −0.087 0.268
  2nd grade x T1   −0.278   −0.079   −0.346   0.001
  3rd grade x T1   −0.428   −0.109   −0.270   0.280
  Intervention x 2nd grade x T1   0.311   0.244   0.129   −0.187
  Intervention x 3rd grade x T1   0.841**   0.320   0.190   −1.222**
Variance componentsa         
  Student level         
   Intercept 7.732 7.729 2.994 2.993 4.170 4.169 32.275 32.254
   T1 4.206 4.202 1.859 1.860 2.528 2.526 10.228 10.216
  Class level         
   Intercept 1.678 1.664 0.589 0.584 1.232 1.226 4.893 4.666
   T1 0.827 0.805 0.260 0.252 0.788 0.776 1.166 1.109
  1. MASCS multisource assessment of social competence scale, SDQ strengths and difficulties questionnaire
  2. *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01, ****p < 0.001
  3. aAll variance components were statistically significant (p < 0.001)