Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the sample comparing participants who chose the email-based exercise program (intervention group) and participants who only filled in the questionnaire (control group)

From: The effectiveness of email-based exercises in promoting psychological wellbeing and healthy lifestyle: a two-year follow-up study

  Intervention group (N = 42 761) Control group (N = 30 293) χ2 or t-test P Phi or eta squared
Age (mean (SD)) 47.5 (13.0) 48.5 (14.4) −9.76 0.000 0.001
Sex      
 Men (N (%)) 10784 (25.2 %) 9790 (32.3 %) 441.6 0.000 0.078
 Women (N (%)) 31977 (74.8 %) 20503 (67.7 %)    
Education years (mean (SD)) 15.3 (3.7) 14.7 (3.9) 23.2 0.000 0.007
Current main activity      
 Employed (N (%)) 34946 (82.6 %) 22840 (76.3 %) 432.8 0.000 −0.077
 Othera (N (%)) 7382 (17.4 %) 7106 (23.7 %)    
In relationship      
 Yes (N (%)) 33213 (78.7 %) 23091 (77.2 %) 22.9 0.000 −0.018
 No (N (%)) 9009 (21.3 %) 6833 (22.8 %)    
Confidence in the future (mean (SD)) 5.21 (1.51) 5.34 (1.44) −11.8 0.000 0.002
Gratitude (mean (SD)) 5.69 (1.35) 5.76 (1.30) −7.51 0.000 0.001
Stress (mean (SD)) 2.29 (0.70) 2.16 (0.69) 24.8 0.000 0.008
Binge drinking weekly      
 Yes (N (%)) 3612 (15.3 %) 4836 (14.3 %) 10.1 0.001 −0.013
 No (N (%)) 19996 (84.7 %) 28882 (85.7 %)    
Daily smoking (N, %)      
 Yes (N (%)) 4905 (11.6 %) 4190 (14.0 %) 89.0 0.000 −0.035
 No (N (%)) 37395 (88.4 %) 25833 (86.0 %)    
Physical exercise at least 3 h/week      
 Yes (N (%)) 26555 (62.6 %) 19788 (65.9 %) 80.2 0.000 −0.033
 No (N (%)) 15857 (37.4 %) 10260 (34.1 %)    
Daily use of vegetables and/or fruits      
 Yes (N (%)) 35587 (83.4 %) 24833 (82.2 %) 18.8 0.000 0.016
 No (N (%)) 7072 (16.6 %) 5379 (17.8 %)    
  1. aGroup “Other” includes unemployed, students, retired or those managing their own household or taking care of family members