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Table 6 LMMs testing the effect of experimental factors on ratings of cry discomfort

From: Sex stereotypes influence adults’ perception of babies’ cries

Source df 1 , df 2 F p
a. Rating of natural cries
 Intercept 1, 1806 38.42 <0.0005
 Participant sex 1, 1806 2.14 0.144
 Declared baby sex 1, 1806 0.05 0.816
 Pitch 1, 1767 39.22 <0.0005
 Participant sex * Declared baby sex 1, 1806 1.90 0.168
 Participant sex * Pitch 1, 1767 2.21 0.138
 Declared baby sex * Pitch 1, 1767 0.40 0.529
 Participant sex * Declared baby sex * Pitch 1, 1767 2.49 0.115
b. Rating of re-synthesised cries
 Intercept 1, 73 2453.91 <0.0005
 Participant sex 1, 73 0.08 0.784
 Declared baby sex 1, 73 2.12 0.152
 Pitch 4, 7376 188.79 <0.0005
 Participant sex * Declared baby sex 1, 73 1.53 0.219
 Participant sex * Pitch 4, 7376 4.86 0.001
 Declared baby sex * Pitch 4, 7376 2.12 0.075
 Participant sex * Declared baby sex * Pitch 4, 7376 2.51 0.040
  1. Linear mixed models (LMM) testing main and interaction effects of participant sex, declared baby sex, cry Pitch (=mean F0) on participants’ ratings of discomfort (7 point Likert scale). (a) Natural cries: LMM includes participant identity as subject variable, and actual baby’s sex as a random factor. (b) Re-synthesised cries: LMM includes participant identity as subject variable, and baby identity (actual baby’s sex) as nested random factors