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Table 5 LMMs testing the effect of experimental factors on ratings of cry gender

From: Sex stereotypes influence adults’ perception of babies’ cries

Source df 1 , df 2 F p
a. Masculinity rating of natural cries
 Intercept 1, 712.7 186.18 <0.0005
 P. sex 1, 712.7 0.068 0.795
 Pitch 1, 688 63.94 <0.0005
 P. sex * Pitch 1, 688 0.31 0.577
b. Masculinity rating of re-synthesised cries
 Intercept 1, 28 2438.57 <0.0005
 P. sex 1, 28 2.96 0.096
 Pitch 4, 2872 182.02 <0.0005
 P. sex * Pitch 4, 2872 6.18 <0.0005
c. Femininity rating of natural cries
 Intercept 1, 908 0.86 0.355
 P. sex 1, 908 1.47 0.226
 Pitch 1, 872.8 87.18 <0.0005
 P. sex * Pitch 1, 872.8 1.68 0.196
d. Femininity rating of re-synthesised cries
 Intercept 1, 34.8 3882.55 <0.0005
 P. sex 1, 34.8 0.18 0.676
 Pitch 1, 3669 468.42 <0.0005
 P. sex * Pitch 1, 3669 0.80 0.528
  1. Linear mixed models (LMM) testing the (main and interaction) effects of participant sex (P. sex) and cry mean F0 (Pitch) on participants’ ratings of masculinity in cries presented as belonging to boys and femininity in cries presented as belonging to girls (both rated along a 7 point Likert scale). Natural cries: LMM includes participant identity as subject variable, and actual baby’s sex as a random factor. Re-synthesised cries: LMM includes participant identity as subject variable, and baby identity (actual baby’s sex) as nested random factors