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Table 4 Effect of acoustic variables on sex identification for natural and re-synthesised cries

From: Sex stereotypes influence adults’ perception of babies’ cries

Source df 1 , df 2 F p
a. Rating of natural cries
 Intercept 15, 1179 6.18 <0.0005
 %voiced 1, 1179 1.27 0.260
 Pitch (=mean F0) 1, 1179 30.03 <0.0005
 maxF0 1, 1179 0.99 0.320
 minF0 1, 1179 0.04 0.838
 Inflex25 1, 1179 3.27 0.071
 Inflex2 1, 1179 2.57 0.109
 F0CV 1, 1179 2.41 0.121
 INTCV 1, 1179 0.51 0.476
 harm 1, 1179 2.10 0.147
 jitter 1, 1179 2.68 0.102
 shimmer 1, 1179 4.67 0.031
 fsp1 1, 1179 3.30 0.070
 fsp2 1, 1179 1.50 0.221
 fsp3 1, 1179 1.31 0.254
 fsp4 1, 1179 0.40 0.526
b. Rating of re-synthesised cries
 Intercept 9, 3830 80.77 <0.0005
 Participant sex 1, 3830 2.63 0.105
 Pitch 4, 3830 164.69 <0.0005
 Participant sex * Pitch 4, 3830 0.80 0.528
  1. (a) Generalized Linear mixed model (GLMM) with binary logistic regression link testing the effect of all 15 acoustic variables on participants’ attribution of sex to natural babies’ cries. Participant identity is included as a subject variable, and recording session (baby’s identity (baby’s actual sex) as a nested random factor term. (b) GLMM with binary logistic regression link testing the effects (main and interactions) of Participant sex and Pitch (=mean F0) on participants’ attribution of sex to re-synthesised babies’ cries. Participant identity (tested population) is included as nested subject term, and cry exemplar (recording session (baby’s identity (baby’s actual sex) as a nested random factor term