Skip to main content

Table 4 Predictions of changes in posttraumatic stress reactions (N = 617)

From: General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study

  Multiple analyses model 1 Multiple analyses model 2 (model 1 + GPSES)
  Change in IES-R (2 years – 6 months) Change in IES-R (2 years – 6 months)
Fixed effects:
 Intercept 0.08 (−0.23, 0.39) 0.08 (−0.23, 0.39)
 Gender
  Male 0.05 (−0.11, 0.20) 0.05 (−0.10, 0.20)
  Femalea 0 0
 Age 0.03 (−0.04, 0.11) 0.03 (−0.05, 0.11)
 Exposure
  Indirectly exposed −0.14 (−0.42, 0.14) −0.14 (−0.42, 0.14)
  Exposed but not in danger 0.00 (−0.21, 0.21) 0.00 (−0.21, 0.22)
  In dangera 0 0
 Perceived threat of death 0.11 (−0.00, 0.22) 0.11 (0.00, 0.22)*
 Loss
  No loss −0.08 (−0.36, 0.20) −0.08 (−0.36, 0.19)
  Loss of family or close frienda 0 0
 Social support −0.07 (−0.16, 0.02) −0.07 (−0.15, 0.02)
 IES-R at 6 months −0.43 (−0.52,−0.33)*** −0.44 (−0.54,−0.34)***
 GPSES   −0.05 (−0.13, 0.03)
Explained variance:
 Between households 15.9 % 14.5 %
 Between individuals within households 10.8 % 11.3 %
 Total explained variance 12.0 % 12.0 %
Model fit:
 AIC (original data) 1481.02 1485.12
  1. Multilevel linear regression analyses controlled for the effect of a mutual address based on multiple imputed data. The values are regression coefficients (95 % confidence intervals in parentheses). All continuous variables were standardized (M = 0, SD = 1) before being entered into the model as dependent or independent variables. All predictors were measured at 6 months post-tsunami
  2. AIC Akaike’s Information Criterion, GPSES General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, IES-R Impact of Event Scale-Revised
  3. *p ≤ .05 and ***p ≤ .001
  4. aFemales, those who had been exposed to danger, and those who had lost family or close friends were set to have a mean of 0 in the mixed effects models