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Table 1 Non-motor, cognitive, and physiological outcomes means, standard errors, and effects by writing condition and timepoint

From: Randomized controlled expressive writing pilot in individuals with Parkinson’s disease and their caregivers

  Expressive writing Neutral writing
Outcome mean (SE) Pre Post 4 M 10 M Pre Post 4 M 10 M Effects F value p value η 2
Self-reported non-motor functioning
MAQ 48.16 (2.35) 46.86 (2.03) 45.48 (2.14) 46.51 (1.99) 48.11 (2.48) 45.90 (2.15) 43.94 (2.26) 44.18 (2.10) Time 3.65 .016* .13
Time X Condition .40 .75 .02
BDI-II 6.70 (1.46) 4.53 (.98) 5.99 (1.27) 6.03 (1.10) 6.20 (1.54) 4.66 (1.04) 4.65 (1.34) 5.03 (1.16) Time 2.53 .064** .09
Time X Condition .45 .720 .02
AS 9.66 (1.12) 10.35 (1.25) 10.76 (1.27) 11.06 (1.37) 8.98 (1.18) 6.94 (1.32) 8.10 (1.34) 8.60 (1.44) Time .76 .521 .03
Time X Condition 1.03 .383 .04
LASA 8.19 (.40) 8.63 (.36) 8.53 (.53) 7.89 (.52) 7.95 (.42) 8.31 (.38) 8.41 (.55) 7.68 (.55) Time 2.01 .120 .07
Time X Condition .17 .916 .01
ECOG 66.03 (5.75) 57.97 (2.95) 61.05 (4.19) 57.88 (4.31) 51.63 (6.82) 48.81 (3.50) 48.94 (4.97) 51.31 (5.12) Time 1.94 .132 .08
Time X Condition 1.02 .387 .04
PD-NMS (N = 19) 6.73 (1.34) 7.46 (1.04) 6.55 (1.35) 8.27 (1.35) 9.88 (1.57) 8.00 (1.22) 8.75 (1.59) 10.38 (1.58) Time 2.02 .122 .11
Time X Condition .98 .408 .06
PDQ-39 (N = 19) 18.73 (5.16) 20.46 (5.47) 20.64 (4.70) 23.91 (5.40) 23.75 (6.06) 20.63 (4.42) 23.00 (5.51) 22.63 (6.33) Time .55 .652 .03
Time X Condition .77 .516 .04
ZBI (N = 10) 7.20 (2.00) 5.20 (1.45) 7.40 (2.03) 7.00 (2.02) 7.40 (2.00) 4.40 (1.45) 4.20 (2.03) 4.80 (2.02) Time 1.88 .160 .19
Time X Condition 1.00 .409 .11
Cognitive performance
Trails A 47.06 (2.88) 50.85 (2.91) 52.71 (2.49) 52.33 (3.23) 50.60 (2.82) 51.09 (2.84) 50.58 (2.43) 52.19 (3.16) Time 1.52 .218 .06
Time X Condition .94 .426 .04
Trails B 51.64 (2.57) 54.25 (3.16) 54.74 (3.58) 52.03 (3.74) 51.14 (2.51) 51.85 (3.09) 54.95 (3.49) 57.13 (3.65) Time 2.14 .102 .08
Time X Condition 2.14 .102 .08
ACT 46.42 (1.59) 47.91 (1.69) 48.23 (1.72) 48.63 (1.95) 44.75 (1.56) 47.76 (1.65) 46.58 (1.68) 48.20 (1.91) Time 2.58 .060** .10
Time X Condition .56 .642 .02
DS 11.49 (.68) 10.69 (.69) 11.75 (.65) 11.99 (.63) 12.00 (.66) 12.36 (.68) 11.50 (.63) 11.78 (.62) Time .28 .838 .01
Time X Condition 2.43 .072** .09
LNS (N = 18) 11.70 (.72) 12.27 (1.01) 11.88 (.73) 11.73 (.84) 8.70 (.95) 10.75 (1.35) 9.80 (.97) 9.35 (1.12) Time 1.56 .214 .10
Time X Condition .48 .700 .03
CVLT-II
 Trials 1–5 T 55.92 (3.84) 58.32 (3.33) 57.46 (3.62) 60.15 (3.38) 53.53 (3.75) 57.24 (3.25) 58.93 (3.54) 58.70 (3.30) Time 2.86 .043* .11
Time X Condition .49 .691 .02
 CVLT-II Short Delay Free Recall .17 (.36) .44 (.35) .48 (.45) .31 (.35) -.21 (.35) .54 (.34) .38 (.44) .86 (.34) Time 3.54 .019* .13
Time X Condition 1.91 .135 .07
 CVLT-II Long Delay Free Recall -.14 (.35) .40 (.30) .28 (.41) .39 (.34) .10 (.34) .69 (.29) .51 (.40) .89 (.33) Time 5.76 .001* .19
Time X Condition .28 .841 .01
 CVLT-II Recognition -.11 (.36) .22 (.33) .38 (.37) .44 (.35) .23 (.35) .09 (.32) .54 (.36) .50 (.35) Time 2.58 .060** .10
Time X Condition .56 .642 .02
Salivary cortisol (μg/dL, values represent mean levels across 60 min post waking) Type III Tests of Fixed Effects F value p  
Full sample (N = 25) .33 (.11) .29 (.11) .35 (.11) .40 (.11) .36 (.11) .54 (.12) .64 (.12) .65 (.13) Time 1.08 .366  
Time X Condition .88 .456
Time X Condition X Status 2.78 .049*
Patients (N = 16) .28 (.12) .23 (.12) .32 (.13) .29 (.12) .37 (.13) .73 (.13) .43 (.14) .63 (.15) Time 1.31 .288
Time X Condition 2.62 .067**
Caregivers, (N = 9) .38 (.20) .34 (.20) .37 (.20) .50 (.20) .34 (.20) .35 (.20) .84 (.22) .66 (.22) Time 1.34 .287
Time X Condition 1.24 .319
  1. N = 29 for all analyses unless otherwise specified
  2. Alpha level is designated as *p <.05, and **p <.10 designates a marginally significant trend
  3. η2 = proportion of variance accounted for by each effect (e.g., .31 = 31 %)
  4. Interpretation of η2 effect sizes should be as follows: ≥ .02 = small effect, ≥ .13 = medium effect, ≥ .26 = large effect
  5. Outcome abbreviations are as follows: MAQ multidimensional anxiety questionnaire, BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory-II, AS apathy scale, LASA linear analogue self assessment, ECOG everyday cognition scale, PD-NMS Parkinson’s disease non-motor symptom questionnaire, PDQ-39 Parkinson’s disease quality of life-39, ZBI Zarit Burden inventory, ACT auditory consonant trigrams, DS digit span, LNS letter number sequencing, CVLT-II California verbal learning test-II, CAR cortisol awakening response