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Table 5 Associations between and lifestyle, personal characteristics, peer group and parental relations at age 15 and being bullied at work age 18. Odds ratios (OR) obtained by logistic regression with 95 % confidence intervals

From: Bullied at school, bullied at work: a prospective study

   Model 1 Bivariate Model 2aAdjusted for covariates in same domain Model 3aAdjusted for covariates in same domain and bullying Model 4** Forward stepwise selection
   OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Gender      
 Girls Ref 1.00   1.00 1.00
 Boys   2.39 (1.68-3.41)   2.11 (1.44-3.09) 2.23 (1.48-3.35)
Lifestyle factors      
 Body Mass Index      
 Underweight   1.05 (0.32-3.47) 1.07 (0.32-3.55) 0.95 (0.28-3.23) 0.84 (0.24-2.95)
 Normal weight Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Overweight   1.95 (1.17-3.23) 1.94 (1.17-3.23) 1.84 (1.10-3.09) 1.77 (1.04-3.02)
 Obesity   2.04 (0.84-4.96) 2.14 (0.88-5.22) 1.76 (0.71-4.35) 1.43 (0.56-3.64)
 Smoking      
 Does not smoke Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Smoke   1.98 (1.02-3.85) 2.16 (1.10-4.24) 2.23 (1.12-4.43) 1.97 (0.94-4.11)
Social position in peer group      
 School performance      
 School performance above median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 School performance below median   1.33 (0.91-1.94) 1.11 (0.74-1.68) 1.08 (0.71-1.64)  
 Self-assessed position in school class      removed
 Self-assessed position in school class above median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00  
 Self-assessed position in school class below median   1.84 (1.24-2.73) 1.78 (1.18-2.68) 1.49 (0.98-2.26)  
Parental relations      
 Over-protection      
 Parents less over-protective than median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 Parents more over-protective than median   1.40 (0.97-2.02) 1.11 (0.75-1.64) 1.03 (0.69-1.54)  
 Family Functioning      
 Family functioning above median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 Family Functioning below median   2.03 (1.37-3.01) 1.95 (1.29-2.95) 1.87 (1.23-2.85) 1.69 (1.10-2.59)
Personal psychological characteristics      
Self-esteem      
 Self-esteem above median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Self-esteem below median   1.65 (1.11-2.45) 1.37 (0.90-2.10) 1.29 (0.84-2.00) 1.60 (1.03-2.49)
Sense of coherence (meaningfulness)      
 Sense of coherence above median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 Sense of coherence below median   1.99 (1.36-2.91) 1.70 (1.13-2.57) 1.56 (1.03-2.37)  
Active coping      
 Active coping above median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 Active coping below median   1.40 (0.96-2.05) 1.13 (0.75-1.71) 1.09 (0.72-1.64)  
Avoidance coping      
 Avoidance coping below median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 Avoidance coping above median   1.32 (0.90-1.92) 1.17 (0.79-1.74) 1.14 (0.76-1.69)  
Socioeconomic status      
 Household income 2003      
 Lowest tertile   2.06 (1.29-3.28) 1.89 (1.15-3.11) 1.64 (0.96-2.80) 1.54 (0.89-2.67)
 Middle tertile   2.17 (1.41-3.33) 2.16 (1.39-3.36) 1.95 (1.22-3.10) 2.10 (1.30-3.39)
 Highest tertile Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Household highest attained education 2003      removed
 <10 year   1.83 (1.07-3.11) 1.44 (0.81-2.55) 1.39 (0.73-2.65)  
 10-12 years   1.13 (0.77-1.66) 0.94 (0.63-1.40) 1.01 (0.66-1.55)  
 >13 years Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00  
Being bullied at age 14–15      
 Not being bullied at age 14–15      1.00
 Being bullied at age 14–15      2.09 (1.39-3.14)
 Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-of-fit      Chi-square 166.26 = 0.48)
 Nagelkerke Pseudo R2      0.09
  1. aAdjusted for other factors in the same domain
  2. ** Adjusted for all variables with a p-value < 0.20