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Table 4 Associations between and lifestyle, personal characteristics, peer group and parental relations at age 15 and being bullied at school age 18. Odds ratios (OR) obtained by logistic regression with 95 % confidence intervals

From: Bullied at school, bullied at work: a prospective study

   Model 1 Bivariate Model 2a Adjusted for covariates in same domain Model 3a Adjusted for covariates in same domain and bullying Model 4** Forward stepwise selection
   OR (95% CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Gender      
 Girls Ref 1.00   1.00 1.00
 Boys   1.36 (1.04-1.76)   1.37 (1.04-1.82) 1.40 (1.04-1.89)
Lifestyle factors      
 Body Mass Index      
 Underweight   1.18 (0.53-2.66) 1.18 (0.53-2.65) 1.17 (0.51-2.68) removed
 Normal weight Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00  
 Overweight   1.35 (0.88-2.06) 1.35 (0.89-2.07) 1.22 (0.79-1.89)  
 Obesity   2.27 (1.17-4.41) 2.37 (1.17-4.40) 1.68 (0.85-3.33)  
 Smoking      
 Does not smoke Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 Smoke   1.14 (0.73-1.77) 0.98 (0.46-2.08) 0.95 (0.44-2.06)  
Social position in peer group      
School performance      
 School performance above median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 School performance below median   1.26 (0.95-1.67) 1.06 (0.78-1.43) 1.04 (0.76-1.42)  
Self-assessed position in schoolat school class      removed
 Self-assessed position in school at school class above median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00  
 Self-assessed position in school at school class below median   1.49 (1.12-1.99) 1.46 (1.08-1.98) 1.18 (0.86-1.62)  
Parental relations      
Over-protection      
 Parents less over-protective than median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Parents more over-protective than median   1.70 (1.29-2.25) 1.52 (1.12-2.06) 1.41 (1.03-1.92) 1.46 (1.08-1.95)
Family Functioning      
 Family functioning above median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 Family Functioning below median   1.51 (1.13-2.01) 1.25 (0.92-1.70) 1.14 (0.83-1.56)  
Personal psychological characteristics      
Self-esteem      
 Self-esteem above median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Self-esteem below median   1.66 (1.23-2.22) 1.51 (1.10-2.06) 1.33 (0.97-1.84) 1.41 (1.03-1.94)
Sense of coherence (meaningfulness)      
 Sense of coherence above median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 Sense of coherence below median   1.55 (1.17-2.05) 1.38 (1.02-1.87) 1.25 (0.92-1.70)  
Active coping      
 Active coping above median   1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 Active coping below median   1.17 (0.88-1.55) 0.95 (0.70-1.29) 0.94 (0.69-1.28)  
Avoidance coping      
 Avoidance coping below median Ref. 1.00 1.00 1.00 removed
 Avoidance coping above median   1.39 (1.04-1.84) 1.27 (0.95-1.71) 1.20 (0.89-1.63)  
Socioeconomic status      
 Household income 2003      removed
 Lowest tertile   1.45 (1.03-2.03) 1.32 (0.92-1.89) 1.18 (0.80-1.74)  
 Middle tertile   1.40 (1.03-1.90) 1.38 (1.01-1.90) 1.25 (0.90-1.76)  
 Highest tertile Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00  
 Household highest attained education 2003      removed
 <10 year   1.65 (1.09-2.49) 1.47 (0.94-2.29) 1.50 (0.92-2.43)  
 10-12 years   1.03 (0.77-1.37) 0.95 (0.71-1.28) 0.93 (0.68-1.27)  
 >13 years Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00  
Being bullied at age 14–15      
 Not being bullied at age 14–15 Ref    1.00 1.00
 Being bullied at age 14–15      3.14 (2.34-4.23)
 Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-of-fit      Chi-square 23.44 = 0.02)
 Nagelkerke Pseudo R2      0.06
  1. aAdjusted for other factors in the same domain
  2. **Adjusted for all variables with a p-value < 0.20