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Table 4 Frequency and z-Tests of Proportions Between TS Youth and Control Group in Non-Personality Factors with Positive or Negative Impact on Friendship

From: Factors impacting the quality of peer relationships of youth with Tourette’s syndrome

  Positive Impact Negative Impact
“Non – Personality” Factors Group Test of Difference in Proportions (two-tailed) Group Test of Difference in Proportions (two-tailed)
  Control Group TS Group z p Control Group TS Group z p
(n = 92) (n = 86)    (n = 92) (n = 92)   
Social skills - High 14 (17) - 4.30 < .001 - -   
Social skills - Low - - - - 1 (1) 20 (23) 4.69 < .001
Social interest - Low - - - - 2 (2) 3 (4) 0.52 .6
Sports participation 18 (20) 9 (11) 1.71 .08 1 (1) - 1.01 .3
Humour 7 (8) 2 (2) 1.65 .10 - - - -
Activities & interests 11 (12) 2 (2) 2.57 .01 - - - -
Parents 14 (15) 5 (6) 2.07 .04 - - - -
School - Positive - 7 (8) 2.73 .01 - - - -
School - Negative - -    2 (2) 5 (6) 1.21 .2
Maladaptive symptoms - -    - 46 (54) 9.89 < .001
Tics - OK - 17 (20) 4.58 < .001 - - - -
Tics - Negative - - -   - 20 (23) 5.07 < .001
Negative behaviours from others - - - - 1 (1) 23 (27) 5.20 < .001
Positive behaviours from others - 9 (11) 3.24 .01 - - - -
Understanding & acceptance - 4 (5) 2.02 .04 - - - -
Lack of understanding & acceptance - - -   - 7 (8) 2.74 .006
Opportunity to socialize 5 (5) 1 (1) 1.59 .1 - - - -
Child as “different” - - - - - 8 (9) 2.95 .003
Age-passage of time - Positive 1 (1) 7 (8) 2.23 .02 - - - -
Age-passage of time - Negative - - - - 2 (2) 6 (7) 1.52 .12
Preference for one or a small group friends 4 (4) 4 (5) 0.10 .9 - 4 (5) 2.02 .04
Trouble maintaining friendships - - - - - 5 (6) 2.29 .02
Having long-term friends 1 (1) 3 (4) 1.06 .29 - - - -
Preferring older or younger friends; not peers 1 (1) 2 (2) 0.61 .54 - - - -
Context 2 (2) 2 (2) 0.04 .96 2 (2) - - -
“Alike” kids 1 (1) 2 (2) 0.61 .54 - - - -
Sibling 4 (4) 1 (1) 1.27 .20 - - - -
  1. Note. Raw scores indicate frequency of references made to the “Other” factor. Total positive or negative impact attributable to each factor by group membership expressed as raw score and percentage