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Table 8 Thematic comparison across focus groups

From: Sense of belonging to local community in small-to-medium sized Canadian urban areas: a comparison of immigrant and Canadian-born residents

City Group LOR General Feelings of Belonging
Charlottetown Chinese Established • Strong islander mentality hinders immigrant sense of belonging
• Strong sense of belonging within the Chinese community
• Employment contributes to sense of belonging; respondents feel that they belong among co-workers
Recent • Also mentioned the strong islander mentality; feelings that immigrants are not welcome
• Identify with Chinese community
• Some mention of PEI as “home”
Iranian Recent • Immigrants feel like they belong in Canadian society
• Belonging is attributed to feelings of security, peace, and the hospitable nature of residents
Hamilton Chinese Established • Feelings of discrimination
• Language acknowledged as a barrier to belonging
• Length of residence contributes to belonging; increased attachment to Hamilton over time
Recent • Strong ethnic identity
• Weak sense of belonging
• Sense of belonging increasing over time; respondents are optimistic about their future in Hamilton
Urdu (female) Recent • Feel excluded from community events; celebrate religious events within ethnic community
• Strong sense of belonging within Hamilton due to large Pakistani population
Urdu (male) Recent • Appreciative of religious freedom
• Again, sense of belonging within Pakistani community
• Increase in sense of belonging over time
Saskatoon Chinese Established • Feeling that Saskatoon is “home”
Recent • House and family are important contributors to feelings of belonging
• Sense of belonging seems to be forced
Tamil Recent • Appreciative of smaller-sized city; familiarity contributes to belonging
• Feelings of belonging to wider society, not just within ethnic community
• Employment contributes to belonging
Urdu Recent • Appreciative of religious freedom
• General feeling that Canadian-born individuals are “nice”
• Feelings of discrimination regarding recognition of credentials