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Table 7 Results of ordinal logit regression analyses of sense of belonging to local communitya (Community Perceptions)

From: Sense of belonging to local community in small-to-medium sized Canadian urban areas: a comparison of immigrant and Canadian-born residents

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  All respondents Canadian-born Immigrants
Independent variables Odds ratios 95 % CI Odds ratios 95 % CI Odds ratios 95 % CI
Quality of schools in neighbourhood       
 Excellent 1.681d 1.17–2.39 1.604c 1.06–2.42 2.156c 1.04-4.45
 Very good 1.212 0.91–1.61 1.191 0.84–1.67 1.555 0.87–2.75
 Good Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Fair/poor 0.700 0.48–1.02 0.754 0.48–1.18 0.545 0.26–1.13
 Not sure 0.831 0.61–1.11 0.830 0.58–1.18 1.00 0.57–1.76
Quality of recreation programs in neighbourhood       
 Excellent 1.759d 1.18–2.60 2.394d 1.53–3.72 0.676 0.26–1.73
 Very good 1.051 0.80–1.36 1.231 0.90–1.67 0.750 0.42–1.32
 Good Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Fair/poor 0.596d 0.43–0.81 0.542d 0.36–0.80 0.651 0.37–1.13
 Not sure 0.783 0.54–1.13 0.856 0.54–1.35 0.617 0.32-1.18
Know neighbours on first name basis?       
 Very true 2.336d 1.62–3.36 2.260d 1.45–3.50 2.976d 1.48–5.97
 Fairly true 1.433c 1.01–2.01 1.406 0.93–2.12 1.875c 1.00–3.51
 Neutral Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Not very true 1.144 0.75–1.72 1.316 0.79–2.19 0.917 0.44–1.88
 Not at all true 0.920 0.58–1.45 1.024 0.58–1.80 0.982 0.43–2.21
Participate in social activities with neighbours?       
 All the time/often 1.841d 1.36–2.49 1.987d 1.39–2.82 1.299 0.70–2.40
 Sometimes Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Hardly ever 0.778b 0.58–1.03 0.714c 0.51–0.99 0.969 0.54–1.73
 Never 0.345d 0.25–0.46 0.275d 0.18–0.40 0.457d 0.26–0.79
Agree that most people can be trusted?       
 Very much 1.216 0.95–1.55 1.006 0.75–1.33 1.819c 1.08–3.05
 Somewhat Reference   Reference   Reference  
 A little 0.750b 0.55–1.01 0.720b 0.50–1.03 0.829 0.46–1.47
 Not much 0.648c 0.44–0.94 0.516d 0.33–0.80 1.145 0.56–2.32
City       
 Hamilton Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Charlottetown 0.953 0.71–1.26 0.994 0.71–1.37 0.962 0.49-1.87
 Saskatoon 0.894 0.70–1.12 0.814 0.61–1.07 1.758c 1.04-2.94
Years lived in Canada       
 5 or less Reference   Reference   Reference  
 6 to 10 --   --   1.450 0.62–3.37
 10 or more --   --   1.654c 0.93–2.91
Observations 1,486   1,092   394  
Pseudo R2 0.1077   0.1263   0.1005  
  1. aThe dependent variable is sense of belonging to local community using a 4 point scale: 1-very weak, 2-somewhat weak, 3-somewhat strong, 4-very strong. The model used for estimation is Ordered Logit. Confidence intervals indicated. (b) significant at 10 %, (c) significant at 5 %, (d) significant at 1 %. Reference categories are included in the table