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Table 5 Results of Ordinal logit regression analyses of sense of belonging to local communitya (Health and socio-demographic conditions)

From: Sense of belonging to local community in small-to-medium sized Canadian urban areas: a comparison of immigrant and Canadian-born residents

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  All respondents Canadian-born Immigrants
Independent variables Odds ratios 95 % CI Odds ratios 95 % CI Odds ratios 95 % CI
Self-perceived health       
 Excellent 1.261 0.93–1.70 1.15 0.81–1.64 1.63 0.90–2.98
 Very good Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Good 0.753c 0.56–0.95 0.696c 0.50–0.96 0.717 0.43–1.20
 Fair/poor 0.823 0.56–1.19 0.700 0.45–1.07 1.204 0.54–2.69
Self-perceived mental health       
 Excellent 1.427d 1.09–1.85 1.413c 1.03–1.92 1.488c 0.87–2.55
 Very good Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Good 0.651d 0.49–0.86 0.671c 0.48–0.93 0.581c 0.33–1.01
 Fair/poor 0.505d 0.31–0.83 0.634 0.34–1.15 0.228d 0.09–0.59
Household Income       
 Less than $20,000 0.853 0.57–1.27 0.825 0.50–1.34 1.055 0.49–2.23
 $20,000 to $39,999 0.669c 0.47–0.94 0.670a 0.44–1.01 0.638 0.33–1.20
 $40,000 to $79,999 Reference   Reference   Reference  
 $80,000 or more 1.101 0.82–1.47 1.116 0.79–1.56 1.498 0.77–2.89
 Not stated 0.961 0.70–1.30 0.950 0.66–1.36 1.062 0.57–1.98
Housing tenure       
 Own Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Rent 0.884 0.68–1.15 0.996 0.72–1.37 0.564d 0.32–0.98
Marital status       
 Single/never married 0.697 0.34–1.40 0.897 0.36–2.18 0.442 0.12–1.61
 Married/common law Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Separated/widowed/divorced 0.394c 0.19–0.80 0.458 0.18–1.11 0.355 0.09–1.35
Education       
 Less than high school 1.521 0.94–2.45 1.32 0.75–2.33 2.262 0.87–5.88
 High school 0.866 0.64–1.17 0.847 0.58–1.22 0.947 0.51–1.73
 Some post-secondary 0.917 0.66–1.26 0.872 0.59–1.28 0.948 0.50–1.79
 College or trades 0.887 0.67–1.16 0.876 0.64–1.19 0.984 0.54–1.76
 University Reference   Reference   Reference  
Employment status       
 Working full-time 0.972 0.69–1.35 0.724 0.48–1.08 2.066d 1.10–3.85
 Working part-time 1.559c 1.03–2.34 1.370 0.82–2.27 1.988c 0.97–4.06
 Unemployed 1.227 0.66–2.26 1.187 0.54–2.58 1.640 0.56–4.72
 Retired 1.404 0.89–2.19 1.09 0.64–1.86 2.730c 1.11–6.67
 Other Reference   Reference   Reference  
Living arrangement       
 Unattached alone 2.022 0.97–4.19 1.544 0.63–3.84 2.746 0.68–10.92
 Unattached with others 1.323 0.65–2.71 1.066 0.43–2.62 1.616 0.43–5.96
 Couple with children 0.978 0.73–1.30 0.921 0.65–1.29 0.827 0.45–1.51
 Couple alone Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Single parent/other 1.733 0.79–3.76 1.501 0.57–3.97 1.575 0.37–6.63
Age       
 18-24 years 0.828 0.52–1.31 0.690 0.39–1.20 1.211 0.47–3.11
 25-44 years 0.687d 0.52–0.89 0.729c 0.53–0.99 0.622 0.34–1.12
 45-64 years Reference   Reference   Reference  
 65 years and over 1.299 0.89–1.88 1.644c 1.06–2.53 0.594 0.27–1.26
City       
 Hamilton Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Charlottetown 1.243 0.94–1.63 1.219 0.89–1.66 1.628 0.84–3.15
 Saskatoon 0.873 0.69–1.10 0.797 0.60–1.05 1.387 0.80–2.39
Years lived in Canada       
 5 or less Reference   Reference   Reference  
 6 to 10 --   --   1.998 0.82–4.83
 10 or more --   --   1.249 0.60–2.58
Observations 1,486   1,092   394  
Pseudo R2 0.0469   0.0474   0.0890  
  1. aThe dependent variable is sense of belonging to local community using a 4 point scale: 1-very weak, 2-somewhat weak, 3-somewhat strong, 4-very strong. The model used for estimation is Ordered Logit. Confidence intervals indicated. (b) significant at 10 %, (c) significant at 5 %, (d) significant at 1 %. Reference categories are included in the table