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Table 2 Evaluations of measurement invariance between Brazil and Norway

From: The cross-cultural validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults: a comparison between Norway and Brazil

Model Type of test Compared with χ 2 SB χ 2 df ε a CFI Δdf ΔSB χ2 Δ ε a ΔCFI
M1a Brazil   937.78 686.47 480 .0441 .9596     
M1b Norway   1195.42 902.93 480 .0530 .9567     
M2 Baseline (both models)   2133.19 1586.00 960 .0494 .9579     
M3 Factor loadings: λall equal M2 2183.00 1620.29 987 .0490 .9574 27 34.87 -.0004 -.0004
M4 Item errors: δall equal M3 2518.85 1747.11 1020 .0516 .9511 33 78.72*** .0026 -.0063
M4a λall equal, δ7 free M3 2294.50 1649.03 1013 .0485 .9572 26 36.36 -.0005 -.0002
M5 Intercepts/means: τall equal M4a 2614.97 1960.31 1046 .0572 .9385 33 320.47*** .0087 -.0187
M5a λall equal, δ7 free, τ22 free M4a 2313.82 1671.17 1024 .0486 .9565 11 19.32 .0001 -.0007
M6 Latent means equal: κall equal, λall equal, δ7 free, τ22 free   2317.73b 1675.31 1025 .0487 .9563     
M6a Latent means different: κall free, λall equal, δ7 free, τ22 free M6 2306.69 1660.02 1019 .0484 .9569 6 11.04 -.0003 .0006
  1. Note. ***p < .001. SB χ2 = Satorra-Bentler rescaled chi-square, ε a  = Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, CFI = Comparative Fit Index, Δ = change in statistical values. bThe model is similar to M5a, except one intercept in the PS factor had to freed up for model identification purposes. λ = factor loadings (lambda), δ = residual error variances (delta), τ = latent intercepts (tau), κ = latent factor means (kappa)