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Table 2 Differences between groups on traumatic exposures

From: Chronic pain in multi-traumatized outpatients with a refugee background resettled in Norway: a cross-sectional study

Variables No Chronic pain* (n = 21) N (%) Chronic pain* (n = 40) N (%) Chi2 p-value
Traumatic experiences (LEC)
Natural disaster 6 (25.0) 18 (75.0) 1.557 0.275
Fire or explosion 13 (28.3) 33 (71.7) 3.150 0.117
Transportation accident 11 (27.5) 29 (72.5) 2.469 0.158
Serious accident at work or at home 9 (31.0) 20 (69.0) 0.282 0.788
Exposure to toxic substance 4 (40.0) 6 (60.0) 0.165 0.725
Physical assault 17 (32.7) 35 (67.3) 0.469 0.706
Assault with weapon 16 (34.8) 30 (65.2) 0.011 1.000
Sexual assault 7 (38.9) 11 (61.1) 0.225 0.769
Other unwanted sexual experience 5 (35.7) 9 (64.3) 0.013 1.000
Combat or exposure to a war-zone 13 (28.9) 32 (71.1) 2.330 0.220
Captivity 11 (34.4) 21 (65.6) 0.000 1.000
Life-threatening illness or injury 8 (27.8) 21 (72.4) 1.146 0.419
Severe human suffering 19 (35.2) 35 (64.8) 0.120 1.000
Sudden, violent death 13 (31.7) 28 (68.3) 0.410 0.574
Sudden, unexpected death of someone close to you 16 (31.4) 35 (68.6) 1.285 0.291
Serious injury, harm, or death you caused to someone else 2 (20.0) 8 (80.0) 1.103 0.470
Any other stressful event or experience 18 (33.3) 36 (66.7) 0.249 0.683
Total types of traumatic exposures # Mean (SD) 9 (2.6) 10 (2.8) −1.679 0.094
  1. Exact chi-square tests were performed; (*) Chronic pain at clinical levels; (#) T-test; LEC = Life Events Checklist.