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Table 3 Means of PA behavior, intention, commitment and the IMI scales per cluster

From: Profiling physical activity motivation based on self-determination theory: a cluster analysis approach

  Cluster 1: Cluster 2: Cluster 3: F/Chi^2(df = 2)
  Autonomous motivation Controlled motivation Low motivation  
  n = 1310 n = 610 n = 553  
Gender: % male 30.7% 32.6% 31.8% 0.80
Age 45.2 ± 12.7 43.9 ± 13.6 44.0 ± 12.6 2.91
Marital status: % married/living together 74.7% 73.3% 74.0% 0.79
Education: % high education 63.0% 56.1% 58.2% 9.47**
BMI 25.5 ± 4.4a 26.9 ± 5.6b 27.0 ± 5.4b 25.04***
Interest/enjoyment 5.73 ± 1.00a 4.85 ± 1.12b 3.91 ± 1.31c 549.64***
Perceived competence 4.78 ± 1.09a 4.08 ± 1.08b 3.58 ± 1.17c 254.52***
Effort/importance 5.42 ± 0.99a 4.72 ± 0.99b 3.99 ± 1.13c 395.69***
Pressure/tension 1.75 ± 0.81a 2.62 ± 1.10b 2.33 ± 1.15c 188.30***
Perceived choice 5.93 ± 0.89a 4.84 ± 1.02b 4.98 ± 1.12c 345.12***
Value/usefulness 6.47 ± 0.49a 6.00 ± 0.71b 5.54 ± 0.97c 384.51***
Intention 7.77 ± 1.51a 6.86 ± 1.50b 5.35 ± 1.84c 453.62***
Commitment 2.93 ± 0.61a 2.57 ± 0.64b 2.01 ± 0.69c 416.50***
Weekly days ≥ 30 minutes PA 2.70 ± 1.07a 2.48 ± 1.15b 2.02 ± 1.22c 70.14***
Weekly minutes spent on:    
MVPA (total) 537 ± 575a 434 ± 491b 362 ± 506b 22.56***
Sports 138 ± 184a 90 ± 127b 56 ± 172c 52.60***
Walking during spare time 102 ± 156a 90 ± 159ab 79 ± 153b 4.43*
Walking to work/school 20 ± 140 18 ± 72 15 ± 67 0.47
Biking during spare time 74 ± 175a 62 ± 172a 38 ± 110b 9.57***
Biking to work/school 34 ± 88a 34 ± 97a 17 ± 44b 9.27***
Gardening 66 ± 143 51 ± 111 59 ± 138 2.77
Chores 85 ± 233 70 ± 211 68 ± 199 0.86
  1. MVPA = moderate to vigorous physical activity.
  2. For each variable, means with different superscripts indicate a significant difference at P < .05 using Bonferroni post-hoc tests.
  3. *P < .05; **P < .01; ***P < .001.