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Table 1 Guidelines for translation and cultural adaptation process for patient-reported outcomes measures according to Wild et al. (2005)

From: Translation and cultural adaptation of the Illness Invalidation Inventory for use in Sweden

Translation procedure  
1. Preparation  
2. Forward translation  
3. Reconciliation  
4. Back translation  
5. Back translation review  
Cultural adaptation procedure  
6. Harmonization  
7. Cognitive debriefing  
8. Review of cognitive debriefing results and finalization  
9. Proof reading  
10. Final report