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Table 4 Variables/demographics analysed in studies and whether they were recorded to be significantly linked to PND (**) or attachment style (*)

From: Adult attachment style as a risk factor for maternal postnatal depression: a systematic review

Variables noted in study Study (numbered according to referencing)   
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Maternal age X X X* X X X X X X X **X   X X X **X X X X X
Employment status X X   X* X X   X      X    X **X   X X
Housewife or primary carer X X     X   X    X   **X X    X    
Income      X   X    **X **X         X  
Social class     X* X   X            X   
Education level X X X X X X X X **X   **X X   X   X   X X  
National language proficiency          **X            
Marital status    X X* X X X    X X    X X X X   X  
Relationship quality or satisfaction       X    **X X*    X   X*   **X*    
Spousal behaviours or support    **X*   X X     **X      **X*      X
Spouse attachment style      X* X*          X*      
Spouse depression       **X               
Husband happiness re: pregnancy           **X           
Extended family     X* X    **X             X
Social/family support   X*   X*   X   **X          **X*    
Historic parental separation     **X*     X             
Early childhood experiences of parents         X **X* **X       **X    **X* X
Planned pregnancy       X   X   **X    X    X   X   
Pregnancy experience       X      **X*      **X   X   
Parity   X   X X   X    **X X   X X X X X X   
Gestational Diabetes    **X                  
Age of infant        **X    X    X     **X X   
Breastfeeding duration   **X            X      X*   
Infant health problems           **X           X
Infant colic **X*                    
Perceived infant temperament or difficultness       **X     **X   **X*         
Mother-infant interaction        **X*              
Infant-mother attachment                  **X* X   
Prenatal depression    **X X* X X X     **X     X **X    X*  
History of depression           **X X       **X    X
Life adversity/stress         X    **X*          X
Psychological wellbeing         X           **X*   
Maternal Anxiety X* X    X* X   **X    **X        **X* **X* X
Maternal Neuroticism                X* **X     
Cognitive defence/coping style          **X        **X     
  1. Variables in bold type are considered to be demographics.
  2. Study numbers in bold type are those that included demographics in the inferential statistical analysis.
  3. ** Significant link to depression findings.
  4. * Significant link to attachment findings.
  5. No asterisk indicates findings linking to attachment or depression, or that it was not analysed statistically.
  6. Note that links may be from correlation analysis, tests of group differences or modelling analyses.