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Table 3 Univariate random-effects subgroup analyses and meta-regressions in N = 32 HFL rTMS studies

From: Short-term efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in depression- reanalysis of data from meta-analyses up to 2010

Study subgroupsa Nstudies (%)b d (95% CI) p two-tailed Meta-regression predictors Nstudiesb Mode Range Regression line slopep two-tailed
Treatment resistance 13    Patient characteristics     
YES (all failed ≥2 AD trials) 10 (77%) -.56 (−.81, −.32) <.001* Female patients (%) 32 47, 50 22-92 .003*
NO (all failed ≥1 AD trials) 3 (23%) -.58 (−.90, −.26) <.001* Mean age (years) 32 43, 44 39-62 .194
Antidepressants 32    Bipolar patients (%) 24 0 0-100 .211
YES (any % of patients) 25 (78%) -.51 (−.68, −.35) <.001* Psychotic patients (%) 14 0 0-8 .789
Stable dose 20 (80%) -.54 (−.74, −.34) <.001* rTMS parameters     
Started with rTMS 5 (20%) -.43 (−.75, −.12) .007* Frequency (Hz) 32 10 5-20 .824
NO (all patients) 7 (22%) -.33 (−.53, −.14) .001* Motor threshold (%) 32 80, 90, 110 80-120 .984
Bipolar depression 24    Total sessions 32 10 5-20 .813
YES (any % of patients) 16 (67%) -.39 (−.62, −.16) .001* Stimuli/session 20 1600 250-3000 .021*c
NO (all patients) 8 (33%) -.45 (−.62, −.28) <.001* Total stimuli/study 20 16000 1250-60000 .124
Psychotic depression 14    Trains/session 28 20 5-100 .217
YES (any % of patients) 3 (21%) -.73 (−1.78, .33) .177 Inter-train interval (s) 31 30 8-60 .680
NO (all patients) 11 (79%) -.59 (−.81, −.36) <.001*      
Coil-type 30        
Figure-of-eight 28 (93%) -.50 (−.66, −.34) <.001*      
Circular 2 (7%) -.59 (−1.59, .42) .254      
Coil angle sham 32        
0° (inactive coil) 2 (6%) -.33 (−.85, .19) .217      
0° (sham coil) 5 (16%) -.63 (−.98, −.28) <.001*      
45° 12 (38%) -.27 (−.50, −.04) .022*      
90° 13 (41%) -.61 (−.82, −.40) <.001*      
  1. Notes: aThere were no statistically significant differences in effect sizes between subgroups. Subgroups were compared using the mixed-effect model (random-effects model was used to compute the overall mean weighted d in each subgroup, overall mean weighted d of subgroups were compared using the fixed-effect model because the number of subgroups was fixed). bNot all studies reported the characteristics investigated in this table. cUnlike % female patients, the slope of regression line of stimuli/session on weighted d was driven by the largest study in the current analysis ( O’Reardon et al. [2007]). After removal of this study the p-value of the slope of regression line was .061. Abbreviations: AD, antidepressant; d, weighted standardised mean difference (Cohen’s d); HFL, high-frequency left rTMS; rTMS, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. *p < .05