Skip to main content

Table 2 Some examples of outcome measures from the interventions

From: Improving psychosocial health and employment outcomes for individuals receiving methadone treatment: a realist synthesis of what makes interventions work

Psychosocial outcomes

Employment outcomes

• Enrollment in health care coverage, improved living conditions (Aszalos et al. [1999])

• Employment status (mean hours employed per week) (Bigelow et al. [1980])

• Helping others (i.e., leadership) (Glickman et al. [2006])

• Days employed (Cohen et al. [1982])

• Drug avoidance activities (Farabee et al. [2002])

• Obtained employment (Magura et al. [2007])

• Reduced impulsive-addictive behaviour (Najavits et al. [2007])

• Perceived motivation to obtain a job (Coviello et al. [2004])

• Increased rapport self-confidence, and motivation (Dansereau et al. [1996])

• Behavioural actions to obtain a job (e.g., completing job applications) (Coviello et al. [2004])

• Productive activity (which included number of arrests) (Cohen et al. [1982])

• Job acquisition (having worked at least one day in the 30 days prior); mean monthly income (Coviello et al. [2009])

• Increased internal locus of control (Nurco et al. [1995])

• Number of vocational-educational services (e.g., pre- employment workshops) involved with (Appel et al. [2000])

• Improvement in psychiatric symptoms (Woody et al. [1987])

• Number of days employed in past 30 days (McLellan et al. [1993]; Zanis et al. [2001])

• Counselor ratings of rapport, motivation and self-confidence (Joe et al. [1994])