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Table 2 Some examples of outcome measures from the interventions

From: Improving psychosocial health and employment outcomes for individuals receiving methadone treatment: a realist synthesis of what makes interventions work

Psychosocial outcomes Employment outcomes
• Enrollment in health care coverage, improved living conditions (Aszalos et al. [1999]) • Employment status (mean hours employed per week) (Bigelow et al. [1980])
• Helping others (i.e., leadership) (Glickman et al. [2006]) • Days employed (Cohen et al. [1982])
• Drug avoidance activities (Farabee et al. [2002]) • Obtained employment (Magura et al. [2007])
• Reduced impulsive-addictive behaviour (Najavits et al. [2007]) • Perceived motivation to obtain a job (Coviello et al. [2004])
• Increased rapport self-confidence, and motivation (Dansereau et al. [1996]) • Behavioural actions to obtain a job (e.g., completing job applications) (Coviello et al. [2004])
• Productive activity (which included number of arrests) (Cohen et al. [1982]) • Job acquisition (having worked at least one day in the 30 days prior); mean monthly income (Coviello et al. [2009])
• Increased internal locus of control (Nurco et al. [1995]) • Number of vocational-educational services (e.g., pre- employment workshops) involved with (Appel et al. [2000])
• Improvement in psychiatric symptoms (Woody et al. [1987]) • Number of days employed in past 30 days (McLellan et al. [1993]; Zanis et al. [2001])
• Counselor ratings of rapport, motivation and self-confidence (Joe et al. [1994])