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Table 1 Some examples of changes targeted by the various interventions

From: Improving psychosocial health and employment outcomes for individuals receiving methadone treatment: a realist synthesis of what makes interventions work

Cognitive/emotional changes Behavioural changes
• Problem solving skills (Abbott et al. [1998]; Coviello et al. [2009]; Platt et al. [1993]) • Communication and drug-refusal skills (Abbott et al. [1998])
• Understanding feelings and behaviors (Woody et al. [1995]) • Communication between clients and counselors (Joe et al. [1994]; Dansereau et al. [1996])
• Self-awareness and discipline (Aszalos et al. [1999]) • Communication skills (Joe et al. [1997])
• Attention problems (Joe et al. [1994]) • Change in activities, such as avoiding drug-using friends (Farabee et al. [2002])
• Depression (Carpenter et al. [2006])
• Greater understanding of self and issues related to women and drug use (implicit in evaluation) (Najavits et al. [2007]) • Developing and refining interpersonal skills (e.g. problem solving and communication skills) (Nurco et al. [1995])
• Communication and reasoning processes (Joe et al. [1997]) • Leadership skills (Glickman et al. [2006])
• Motivation to employment (Coviello et al. [2004]) • Job acquisition (Kidorf et al. [1998])
• Productive activity (Cohen et al. [1982])
• Action steps to employment (Coviello et al. [2004])