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Table 1 Catch 22 intervention sessions

From: London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP): A cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol of an intervention to reduce antisocial behaviour and improve educational/occupational attainment for pupils at risk of school exclusion

Sessions Main contents
1. The skills I start with To learn effective communication skills. Participants are invited to think about their strengths and difficulties in regard to their communication strategies with teachers and peers.
2. Managing difficult emotions To learn effective anger management skills. Participants are made aware of a range of emotions, the triggers for some emotions and some alternatives for managing them.
3. Understanding conflicts To learn strategies for self-calming and de-escalating confrontations.
4. I have choices To learn to appreciate the availability of different alternatives in a range of situations, to appreciate choices; their causes and effects.
5. Check it out To learn to identify difficulties in comprehension; being aware of confusion by instructions; positive skills and attitudes to ask for extra explanations (e.g., interrupting appropriately).
6. Different talk for different people To learn to adjust the way of talking depending on one’s conversation partner and location. Develop an understanding of the difference between formal and informal communication exchanges.
7. Looking back looking forward Evaluate personal performance and setting goals for the second part of the course.
8. Co-operating with others To learn assertive communication skills in-group situations. Discussing with others in small groups, accepting others’ opinion, changing personal opinions.
9. Aggressive, Assertive, Passive To learn to understand and be aware of different styles of communication (aggressive, assertive, passive) and develop skills for adaptive, assertive interchange.
10. Communication without talk To learn to understand body language and non-verbal signals. To be aware of potential biases based on non-verbal signs/stereotypes (dress, ethnicity, posture, etc.).
11. I can change my world To learn to identify and acknowledge personal difficulties with classroom behaviour and identify strategies to improve.
12. Summing up Final session summarizing the learning process, relevance of communication skills, personal achievements and personal challenges.