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Table 5 Associations of background characteristics with age-standardised motor co-ordination, balance and composite motor scores

From: Determinants of variability in motor performance in middle childhood: a cross-sectional study of balance and motor co-ordination skills

Variable Gender Nutritional status Area of residence
  Boys Girls   Stunted Not stunted   Rural Peri-urban  
(n = 148) (n = 160) (n = 74) (n = 234) (n = 245) (n = 63)
Balance M SD M SD t a d M SD M SD t b d M SD M SD t c d
   Stork balance -.06 .99 .05 1.00 -.96 -.11 -.23 1.00 .07 .99 -2.25* -.30 -.00 .99 .00 1.04 -.01 -
   Ball balance -.04 .72 .18 .80 -2.60* .29 -.08 .79 .12 .76 -1.97 -.26 .09 .80 .01 .62 .83 -.14
   Hopping in squares -.15 1.00 .15 .94 -2.70** -.31 -.22 1.07 .08 .94 -2.34* -.30 -.06 1.02 .27 .74 -2.94** -.38
   One board balance -.05 .95 .05 1.04 -.86 -.10 .01 1.05 -.00 .98 .05 - -.02 1.01 .06 .97 -.53 -.08
Motor co-ordination                   
   Pegboard -.05 .98 .06 .94 -.99 -.12 -.31 .95 .11 .94 -3.35** -.44 -.01 .96 .08 .98 -.65 -.09
   Bead threading -.03 .94 .04 .98 -.64 -.07 -.16 1.11 .06 .91 -1.58 -.22 -.01 .95 .05 1.01 -.43 -.06
   Bolt board .04 .90 -.05 1.00 .83 .10 -.20 1.12 .05 .89 -1.77 -.22 -.04 .95 .13 .94 -1.29 -.18
   Jumping and clapping .06 .94 -.09 .97 1.42 .16 -.27 1.06 .06 .90 -2.46* -.34 -.06 .98 .14 .86 -1.61 -.22
Composite scores                   
   Balance -.08 .61 .11 .66 -2.53* -.30 -.13 .70 .07 .61 -2.35* -.31 .00 .65 .09 .58 -.92 -.13
   Coordination .01 .69 -.01 .71 .21 .03 -.24 .79 .07 .65 -3.37** -.43 -.03 .71 .10 .67 -1.32 -.19
   Overall index -.03 .55 .05 .60 -1.27 -.14 -.18 .66 .07 .53 -3.37** -.42 -.01 .58 .09 .54 -1.31 -.18
  1. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001, df = 306.
  2. aJumping and clapping (df = 109).
  3. bJumping and clapping (df = 109), Bead threading (df = 106) and Bolt board (df = 103).
  4. cJumping and clapping (df = 107), Ball balance (df = 121) and Hopping in squares (df = 130).