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Table 4 Associations between dichotomous familial risk factors at birth and continuous cognitive outcomes at age 72–74 years (N=346)

From: The impact of early life factors on cognitive function in old age: The Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

Exposures Level of adjustment Composite scorea Separate cognitive testsb
    MMS Digit symbol KOLT COWAT TMA Block design
Mother’s condition, good (vs poor)         
  Unadjusted 0.17 (−0.17,0.51) 0.09 (−0.21,0.40) 0.83 (−0.72,2.39) 0.74 (−2.05,3.53) 2.26 * (0.35,4.16) −2.27 (−12.61,8.06) −0.25 (−0.99,0.49)
  + age/gender 0.22 (−0.12,0.56) 0.13 (−0.18,0.43) 0.99 (−0.58,2.57) 1.20 (−1.55,3.96) 2.39 * (0.45,4.33) −1.53 (−12.02,8.95) −0.21 (−0.96,0.55)
Family history of TB, no (vs yes)         
  Unadjusted −0.17 (−0.49,0.15) −0.07 (−0.35,0.22) −0.04 (−1.51,1.42) −2.02 (−4.64,0.60) −1.42 (−3.23,0.38) −1.90 (−11.63,7.83) 0.04 (−0.66,0.74)
  + age/gender −0.16 (−0.48,0.15) −0.07 (−0.35,0.22) −0.03 (−1.50,1.44) −1.89 (−4.43,0.66) −1.41 (−3.22,0.40) −1.90 (−11.63,7.83) 0.04 (−0.66,0.74)
CVD, family, no (vs yes)         
  Unadjusted −0.09 (−0.39,0.21) −0.10 (−0.37,0.16) −0.12 (−1.50,1.25) −0.71 (−3.18,1.76) 0.35 (−1.35,2.05) −6.82 (−15.94,2.29) 0.09 (−0.57,0.75)
  + age/gender −0.08 (−0.38,0.22) −0.09 (−0.36,0.18) −0.04 (−1.43,1.35) −1.12 (−3.54,1.30) 0.34 (−1.39,2.06) −6.04 (−15.26,3.17) 0.15 (−0.52,0.81)
Mother’s appearance, good (vs poor)         
  Unadjusted 0.13 (−0.10,0.37) −0.09 (−0.30,0.12) 1.06 (−0.02,2.15) 0.52 (−1.44,2.47) 0.65 (−0.70,1.99) 4.76 (−2.46,11.97) 0.11 (−0.41,0.63)
  + age/gender 0.12 (−0.11,0.36) −0.10 (−0.31,0.11) 1.03 (−0.06,2.11) 0.51 (−1.40,2.41) 0.64 (−0.71,1.99) 4.44 (−2.80,11.68) 0.09 (−0.43,0.61)
Complications, no (vs yes)c         
  Unadjusted 0.25 (−0.07,0.58) −0.12 (−0.42,0.17) 1.23 (−0.28,2.74) 1.11 (−1.62,3.83) 0.13 (−1.74,2.00) 9.92 (−0.10,19.94) 0.88 * (0.16,1.60)
  + age/gender 0.28 (−0.05,0.60) −0.11 (−0.41,0.19) 1.31 (−0.21,2.83) 1.18 (−1.47,3.83) 0.15 (−1.74,2.03) 10.49* (0.44,20.54) 0.92 * (0.20,1.64)
Socioeconomic status, higher (vs lower)         
  Unadjusted 0.25 * (0.05,0.45) 0.12(−0.06,0.30) 1.16 * (0.23,2.08) 1.28 (−0.39,2.94) 0.72 (−0.43,1.87) 6.78 * (0.63,12.93) 0.08 (−0.36,0.53)
  + age/gender 0.25 * (0.05,0.45) 0.12 (−0.06,0.30) 1.16 * (0.23,2.08) 1.24 (−0.38,2.87) 0.72 (−0.43,1.87) 6.82 * (0.66,12.97) 0.09 (−0.36,0.53)
Unmarried, no (vs yes)         
  Unadjusted −0.06 (−0.59,0.46) −0.06 (−0.54,0.41) −0.73 (−3.17,1.70) −1.33 (−5.70,3.04) 2.68 (−0.31,5.68) 2.32 (−13.85,18.50) −0.87 (−2.02,0.29)
  + age/gender −0.12 (−0.65,0.41) −0.10 (−0.57,0.38) −0.88 (−3.34,1.57) −1.88 (−6.16,2.39) 2.65 (−0.38,5.67) 1.56 (−14.73,17.86) −0.93 (−2.09,0.24)
Teeth, lower jaw, good (vs poor)d         
  Unadjusted 0.06 (−0.14,0.26) −0.09 (−0.26,0.09) 0.24 (−0.71,1.20) 2.25 ** (0.56,3.93) 0.10 (−1.08,1.28) −0.78 (−6.96,5.40) 0.06 (−0.40,0.52)
  + age/gender 0.09 (−0.11,0.29) −0.08 (−0.25,0.10) 0.29 (−0.67,1.25) 2.75 ** (1.11,4.39) 0.15 (−1.04,1.35) −0.70 (−6.92,5.53) 0.06 (−0.40,0.52)
Type of payment, insurance (vs other)e         
  Unadjusted 0.15 (−0.10,0.39) 0.17 (−0.07,0.41) 1.33 * (0.22,2.44) 0.38 (−1.56,2.32) −0.30 (−1.63,1.02) −0.29 (−7.44,6.86) 0.07 (−0.45,0.59)
  + age/gender 0.14 (−0.11,0.39) 0.17 (−0.07,0.41) 1.30 * (0.19,2.41) 0.30 (−1.61,2.20) −0.32 (−1.65,1.01) −0.31 (−7.48,6.86) 0.06 (−0.46,0.59)
Number of diseases, ≤1 (vs >1)         
  Unadjusted 0.00 (−0.22,0.22) −0.07 (−0.27,0.12) 0.42 (−0.58,1.43) −0.53 (−2.33,1.27) 0.32 (−0.92,1.56) 1.91 (−4.77,8.58) −0.12 (−0.60,0.36)
  + age/gender −0.01 (−0.23,0.21) −0.08 (−0.27,0.12) 0.39 (−0.62,1.40) −0.54 (−2.29,1.22) 0.32 (−0.93,1.56) 1.63 (−5.06,8.32) −0.14 (−0.62,0.34)
  1. Linear regression models, unstandardized coefficients.
  2. 95% confidence intervals in parentheses.
  3. Significant associations in bold.
  4. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001.
  5. aZ-score of the sum of all cognitive tests (mean: 0, standard deviation: 1).
  6. bTest-specific raw scores for each cognitive tests (see Methods section for further details). MMS: range (5, 12); Digit Symbol: range (2, 22); KOLT: range (6, 60); COWAT: range (3, 34); TMA: range (-154,-14; reversed); Block Design: range (2, 16).
  7. cIncluding, but not limited to, prolonged labour, abnormal presentation assisted delivery of the baby (use of forceps) and episiotomy, uterine rupture, discoloured amniotic fluid, abnormal fetal souffle and placenta praevia, and combinations of these.
  8. dN=335.
  9. eN=245.