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Table 3 Associations between continuous individual risk factors at birth and continuous cognitive outcomes at age 72–74 years (N=346)

From: The impact of early life factors on cognitive function in old age: The Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

Exposures Level of adjustment Composite scorea Separate cognitive testsb
    MMS Digit symbol KOLT COWAT TMA Block design
Birth weight (kg)         
  Unadjusted 0.01 (−0.18,0.20) −0.03 (−0.20,0.14) −0.12 (−0.99,0.75) −0.24 (−1.80,1.31) 0.85 (−0.22,1.92) 2.44 (−3.32,8.21) −0.23 (−0.64,0.19)
  + age/gender 0.02 (−0.17,0.21) −0.03 (−0.20,0.14) −0.14 (−1.02,0.73) 0.24 (−1.29,1.78) 0.91 (−0.18,1.99) 2.01 (−3.81,7.84) −0.26 (−0.68,0.16)
Birth length (cm)         
  Unadjusted 0.02 (−0.03,0.07) 0.01 (−0.03,0.05) 0.03 (−0.19,0.25) 0.01 (−0.38,0.41) 0.20 (−0.07,0.47) 1.00 (−0.46,2.46) −0.04 (−0.14,0.07)
  + age/gender 0.03 (−0.02,0.07) 0.01 (−0.03,0.05) 0.03 (−0.20,0.25) 0.22 (−0.17,0.61) 0.23 (−0.04,0.51) 0.94 (−0.56,2.43) −0.04 (−0.15,0.06)
Head circumferencec (cm)         
  Unadjusted 0.05 (−0.01,0.11) 0.04 (−0.01,0.09) −0.06 (−0.33,0.22) −0.05 (−0.54,0.43) 0.48 ** (0.15,0.82) 1.95 * (0.15,3.76) 0.05 (−0.08,0.18)
  + age/gender 0.06 (−0.00,0.12) 0.04 (−0.01,0.09) −0.07 (−0.35,0.21) 0.17 (−0.31,0.65) 0.52 ** (0.18,0.86) 1.81 (−0.04,3.66) 0.04 (−0.09,0.18)
Ponderal index (weight/height3)         
  Unadjusted −0.11 (−0.54,0.31) −0.17 (−0.55,0.22) −0.62 (−2.59,1.34) −0.64 (−4.17,2.89) 1.15 (−1.28,3.57) −2.87 (−15.91,10.17) −0.24 (−1.17,0.70)
  + age/gender −0.16 (−0.59,0.27) −0.19 (−0.58,0.19) −0.74 (−2.73,1.24) −1.38 (−4.83,2.07) 1.08 (−1.37,3.53) −3.34 (−16.49,9.82) −0.27 (−1.21,0.68)
Mother’s pelvic sized, e (cm)         
  Unadjusted 0.06 (−0.02,0.13) 0.08 * (0.01,0.15) 0.16 (−0.20,0.53) 0.18 (−0.48,0.83) 0.38 (−0.06,0.82) 1.00 (−1.41,3.42) −0.12 (−0.29,0.06)
  + age/gender 0.05 (−0.03,0.13) 0.08 * (0.00,0.15) 0.14 (−0.23,0.51) 0.22 (−0.43,0.86) 0.39 (−0.06,0.83) 0.75 (−1.70,3.21) −0.14 (−0.32,0.03)
Mother’s age (years)         
  Unadjusted 0.01 (−0.01,0.02) 0.01 (−0.00,0.03) 0.02 (−0.06,0.10) 0.04 (−0.10,0.18) −0.01 (−0.11,0.09) −0.19 (−0.71,0.34) 0.00 (−0.04,0.04)
  + age/gender 0.00 (−0.01,0.02) 0.01 (−0.00,0.03) 0.02 (−0.06,0.10) 0.02 (−0.12,0.16) −0.01 (−0.11,0.09) −0.16 (−0.69,0.36) 0.00 (−0.04,0.04)
Parity (number of births)         
  Unadjusted −0.02 (−0.07,0.03) 0.03 (−0.02,0.07) −0.14 (−0.37,0.10) 0.12 (−0.31,0.55) −0.10 (−0.39,0.19) −1.01 (−2.59,0.57) −0.11 (−0.22,0.01)
  + age/gender −0.02 (−0.07,0.03) 0.02 (−0.02,0.07) −0.14 (−0.38,0.10) 0.05 (−0.37,0.47) −0.11 (−0.40,0.19) −0.98 (−2.57,0.60) −0.11 (−0.22,0.01)
  1. Linear regression models, unstandardized coefficients.
  2. 95% confidence intervals in parentheses.
  3. Significant associations in bold.
  4. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001.
  5. aZ-score of the sum of all cognitive tests (mean: 0, standard deviation: 1).
  6. bTest-specific raw scores for each cognitive tests (see Methods section for further details). MMS: range (5, 12); Digit Symbol: range (2, 22); KOLT: range (6, 60); COWAT: range (3, 34); TMA: range (-154,-14; reversed); Block Design: range (2, 16).
  7. cN=344.
  8. dN=324.
  9. eMean of the interspinous distance, the intercristal distance and the external conjugate in centimeters.